Pourquoi les MPME et le commerce?

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      Pourquoi les MPME et le commerce ?

      Pourquoi les MPME et le commerce ? Il n'existe pas de définition universelle des MPME. Certaines économies les classent en fonction du nombre d'employés, d'autres en fonction du chiffre d'affaires annuel, d'autres encore en fonction des actifs, et d'autres enfin en fonction d'une combinaison de ces éléments. Bien qu'il n'y ait pas d'accord exact sur ce qu'est une MPME, ce qui est clair, c'est qu'elles représentent une part importante de l'économie mondiale. Selon certaines estimations, les MPME représentent environ 60 % de l'emploi mondial, 50 % de la valeur ajoutée et 95 % des entreprises dans le monde (voir le Rapport sur le commerce mondial 2016 de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) pour plus d'informations). En outre, si l'on considère leur nombre d'employés, la majorité des MPME sont de très petites entreprises (ou microentreprises, moins de 10 employés). Dans certaines régions du monde, elles peuvent également faire partie du secteur informel. Les MPME commercent moins que les grandes entreprises Il a été démontré que le commerce international, et en particulier la participation à des chaînes de valeur mondiales (CVM), présente un certain nombre d'avantages pour les participants, allant de la diversification des intrants et des marchés au transfert de technologies et à l'augmentation de la productivité. Cependant, toutes les entreprises n'ont pas la même capacité à participer et de plus en plus d'éléments montrent que les MPME ont besoin d'aide pour commercer. Pour plus d'informations à ce sujet, voir le Rapport sur le commerce mondial 2016 de l'OMC : Niveler le terrain commercial pour les PME, les Perspectives de la compétitivité des PME du Centre du commerce international (CCI) : Connecter, concurrencer et changer pour une croissance inclusive, et la publication de l'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) et de la Banque mondiale sur les chaînes de valeur mondiales inclusives). Les MPME et le commerce des services Les services sont un secteur important pour la participation économique des MPME, d'autant plus que l'économie numérique continue de se développer. Il a été constaté que les MPME qui fournissent des services exportent plus tôt que les MPME manufacturières, ayant des coûts fixes relativement plus faibles pour entrer dans le commerce international (voir le Rapport sur le commerce mondial 2019 de l'OMC : L'avenir du commerce des services). Le soutien au commerce des services par l'abaissement des barrières peut être un moyen important d'ouvrir des opportunités commerciales pour les MPME. Les MPME et la numérisation L'économie numérique offre de nombreuses possibilités aux MPME de commencer à commercer à l'échelle internationale. Qu'il s'agisse d'entreprises "nées dans le monde" ou de commerce électronique, les MPME qui se numérisent ont accès à des outils qui peuvent réduire les coûts des entreprises et faciliter le commerce. Cependant, les MPME restent beaucoup plus lentes à se numériser, que ce soit en raison de l'accès à l'infrastructure, des coûts ou du manque de savoir-faire numérique. Pour plus d'informations, voir les Perspectives de la compétitivité des PME de l'ITC : Business Ecosystems for the Digital Age, la transformation numérique des PME de l'OCDE, et les rapports sur l'économie numérique de la Conférence des Nations Unies sur le commerce et le développement (CNUCED). MPME, commerce et genre Les MPME sont importantes pour l'inclusion commerciale, en particulier lorsqu'il s'agit des femmes. Il existe des écarts importants dans la participation au commerce entre les entreprises détenues par des femmes et celles détenues par des hommes. Selon le rapport de l'OMC sur les femmes et le commerce, les entreprises appartenant à des femmes sont généralement plus petites que celles appartenant à des hommes. Il est important de comprendre le lien entre les MPME, le commerce et le genre, surtout si l'on considère que les entreprises exportatrices appartenant à des femmes paient davantage, embauchent plus et sont plus productives que leurs homologues non exportatrices (voir le rapport de l'ITC intitulé "Unlocking Markets for Women to Trade"). Les MPME et l'innovation L'innovation est cruciale pour la croissance et le développement à long terme. Les MPME, à l'avant-garde des innovations commerciales, peuvent être plus agiles que les grandes entreprises et plus disposées à expérimenter. Toutefois, selon les travaux de l'OCDE, les MPME sont en moyenne moins innovantes que les grandes entreprises. Des efforts politiques supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour encourager l'innovation dans les MPME (voir OCDE Promouvoir l'innovation dans les PME établies).

Guides à l'intention des décideurs pour aider les MPME à participer au commerce

  1. Questions transversales

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      Genre

      Commerce et genre De plus en plus d'études montrent que si le commerce international peut être important pour le développement des entreprises, l'innovation et la résilience, il est nécessaire que le commerce devienne plus inclusif. Des obstacles existent non seulement pour les MPME, mais aussi plus spécifiquement pour les femmes commerçantes et chefs d'entreprise, ce qui complique leurs efforts pour tirer parti des opportunités économiques offertes par le commerce. Le commerce peut favoriser l'émancipation économique des femmes et faire progresser l'égalité des sexes. Les gouvernements peuvent y parvenir en élaborant et en mettant en œuvre des politiques commerciales tenant compte de la dimension de genre, ainsi qu'en appliquant les accords de l'OMC dans une optique de genre. La politique commerciale peut soutenir les femmes entrepreneurs en levant les nombreux obstacles supplémentaires auxquels elles sont confrontées par le biais d'incitations financières et non financières, de marchés publics ou de renforcement des capacités dans le domaine du commerce. Pourquoi les MPME et le genre ? Les femmes entrepreneurs représentent une part importante des MPME dans le monde. Elles représentent environ 30 à 37 % (8 à 10 millions) de l'ensemble des MPME dans les marchés émergents (voir la note d'information de la SFI de 2011). Au Nigeria, les femmes représentent 41 % des propriétaires de micro-entreprises, avec 23 millions de femmes entrepreneurs opérant dans le pays. Le Nigeria a l'un des taux d'entrepreneuriat féminin les plus élevés au monde (le rapport PWC est disponible ici). Les femmes entrepreneurs possèdent et dirigent principalement des micro-entreprises, qui sont généralement plus petites que les entreprises détenues ou dirigées par des hommes. Par exemple, au Canada, 92,7 % des entreprises appartenant à des femmes emploient moins de 20 personnes (le rapport du Centre de connaissances sur l'entrepreneuriat féminin et de l'Organisation des femmes entrepreneurs du Canada est disponible ici). Leur petite taille rend la concurrence sur le marché international très difficile et c'est l'une des nombreuses raisons pour lesquelles elles ne sont pas intégrées dans le marché mondial (voir "Unlocking Markets for Women to Trade" pour plus d'informations). Les femmes entrepreneurs ne sont pas seulement confrontées aux mêmes défis commerciaux que les MPME, tels que les coûts relativement plus élevés imposés par les mesures non tarifaires et les procédures douanières, elles peuvent également être confrontées à des obstacles et des coûts commerciaux supplémentaires, tels que les interdictions légales de participation économique, la discrimination supplémentaire en matière d'accès au financement et l'accès inégal à l'économie numérique en raison de la fracture numérique persistante entre les hommes et les femmes. Où les décideurs politiques peuvent-ils trouver davantage de ressources ? Pour plus de ressources sur le commerce et le genre, veuillez consulter : Le site web de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) consacré aux femmes et au commerce contient des informations sur les ressources et les événements pertinents, ainsi qu'un lien vers la page web du groupe de travail informel de l'OMC sur le commerce et la parité. Publié en 2020, un rapport de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce et de la Banque mondiale, Women and Trade : The role of trade in promoting gender equality, examine le rôle du commerce dans la promotion de l'égalité des sexes et fournit de nouvelles informations et données sur ce sujet important. Les autres documents d'intérêt sont les suivants L'autonomisation économique des femmes : une partie inhérente de l'aide au commerce" ; Dispositions relatives au genre dans les accords commerciaux africains : Évaluation des engagements pour réconcilier l'autonomisation des femmes et le commerce mondial ; et Politiques commerciales soutenant l'autonomisation économique des femmes : Tendances dans les pays membres de l'OMC. La page web du Centre du commerce international (CCI) consacrée aux femmes et au commerce renvoie à des ressources telles que l'initiative SheTrades du CCI, qui est une plateforme permettant aux entreprises, organisations et sociétés dirigées par des femmes de se connecter, d'accéder à des ateliers et de trouver des fournisseurs. L'ITC a également publié en 2020 un document intitulé "Mainstreaming Gender in Free Trade Agreements" (Intégration de la dimension de genre dans les accords de libre-échange), ainsi que d'autres rapports pertinents. L'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) dispose également d'une page web sur le commerce et la parité, qui contient des recherches et des publications sur la manière dont le commerce peut contribuer à l'autonomisation économique des femmes. La Conférence des Nations unies sur le commerce et le développement (CNUCED) propose une page web sur l'égalité des sexes, son importance pour le développement durable et le rôle du commerce. Cette page web présente l'ensemble des publications, projets et événements récents sur le sujet. La page web de la Banque mondiale sur le commerce et le genre est une autre ressource qui renvoie à des publications pertinentes et à des événements à venir sur les femmes et le commerce. Où les décideurs politiques peuvent-ils trouver des bonnes pratiques ou des exemples nationaux ? Le groupe de travail informel de l'OMC sur le commerce et le genre a préparé un rapport d'avancement décrivant les travaux techniques que les membres et observateurs de l'OMC ont entrepris sur l'autonomisation économique des femmes. Ce rapport peut être consulté sur le site web de l'OMC

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      Accords commerciaux régionaux

      What do small businesses matter for RTA negotiations?   Small businesses are the backbone of economies by accounting for most businesses and employment worldwide. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), small businesses represent about 90% of all enterprises and 70% of all jobs in many countries around the world. However, these businesses participate relatively less in international trade than large firms. To bridge this gap, regional trade agreements (RTAs) with small business language have emerged as an avenue for enabling small businesses to integrate more in regional and international markets. The first small business reference in an RTA notified to the WTO was recorded in the EU – Overseas Countries and Territories agreement in 1971. Since then, RTAs including at least one small business-related provision have increased to more than half of all RTAs notified to the World Trade Organization (WTO) as of now. How are small businesses included in RTAs?   RTAs contain provisions that affect trade by businesses of all size. Beyond tariff reductions and trade standardization, RTAs now go further to include small businesses directly with dedicated SME chapters or specific provisions related to small businesses in chapters like investment, e-commerce, intellectual property, competition, government procurement and trade facilitation among others. According to the latest information available in the WTO’s MSME-Related Language in Regional Trade Agreements database, cooperation and government procurement chapters are the ones where RTAs  contain the most small business-related provisions. A report by the WTO Secretariat found that over a half (53%) of RTAs with small business provisions contain a reference on cooperation mechanisms for developing small business capabilities and competitiveness, with such mechanisms ranging from human resources and technology adoption to public-private partnerships and better access to finance, information, and institutional support. How can RTAs impact small business and trade?   RTAs with small business-related provisions offer opportunities for small businesses to engage more in regional and international trade by receiving preferential market access and improved support from public- and private-sector institutions. While most small business provisions have focused on cooperation avenues for developing the trade capacities of small businesses, there is little evidence the latter are aware of how they can benefit from RTAs. For example, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) has found that lack of information has been a stumbling block preventing Southeast Asian small businesses to fully benefit from the over 90 RTAs led by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its member states. High fixed costs in using tariff benefits are another factor constraining the ability of small businesses to seize market access opportunities through RTAs. A study from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) highlighted that smaller firms are less likely to use treaty benefits because they face higher utilization costs than large firms. When larger firms are the ones driving national exports due to their increased use of RTA preferential terms, small businesses can also face higher factor prices for the industry. To level the playing field for small businesses, policymakers need to consider small business needs (see guide on Think Small First Principle) in RTA negotiations and tailor support tools that enable small businesses meet the financial and production requirements to fully reap RTA benefits. Where can I access further resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? ITC’s SME Competitiveness Outlook 2017: The International Trade Centre (ITC) provides a flagship report with research and analysis on mechanisms through which RTAs support small business trade and key areas where policymakers can provide technical assistance. Visit this ITC report. WTO’s MSME Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: The WTO maintains a database of provisions related to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) included all RTAs notified to the WTO by Members. Visit this WTO website. WTO’s Provisions on Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Regional Trade Agreements: The WTO offers a working paper that reviews, analyses and categorises the different types of RTA provisions on small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Visit the WTO paper. Where can I access good practices and national examples? Benefits of EU Trade Agreements for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: The European Parliament provides a framework and assessment on small business awareness of RTA chapters and the latter’s small business benefits. Visit this European Parliament website. Canada’s Approach to Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Free Trade Agreements: The Government of Canada applies a two-pronged approach to integrating small businesses into RTAs by formulated a chapter dedicated to small businesses, and by mainstreaming small business issues through provisions related to small businesses across agreement chapters. Visit this Canada website. ITC’s Business Guide to the African Continental Free Trade Agreement: The International Trade Centre (ITC) offers a guide for small businesses to gain insight in the benefits they can seize from the African Continental Free Trade Agreement. Visit this ITC guide. Malaysia’s Evidence on SME Internationalization through Global Value Chains and Free Trade Agreements: The Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) provides an analysis on firm-level factors driving businesses to leverage on RTA provisions to engage in trade, and highlights key areas where policymakers can provide small business support. Visit this ADBI report. OAS’s MSME Provisions in Trade Agreements: The Organization of American States (OAS) maps out provisions on small businesses included in regional trade agreements adopted by countries across the Americas. Visit this OAS website. Philippines’ Doing Business in Free Trade Areas: The Philippines provides a business guide and dedicated portals to guide small businesses through opportunities businesses can explore in free trade areas. Visit this Philippines website. Switzerland’s new Free Trade Agreements (FTA): Opportunities in Asia, Middle East and America for Swiss Exporters: Switzerland provides online tools and for small businesses to explore opportunities through RTAs and assessments of potential economic benefits reaped by RTAs. See this Swiss paper. The Representation of SME Interests in Free Trade Agreements: The United Kingdom Trade Policy Observatory and Federation of Small Businesses offer a study with policy recommendations for enabling small business trade through best practices in incorporating provisions on small businesses in RTAs. Visit the UKTPO-FSB report

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      Normes volontaires de développement durable

      What are voluntary sustainability standards (VSS)   Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) are a set of standards which aim to encourage sustainability along global value chains, by ensuring businesses use resources and processes that do not damage the environment or people. This benefits both the business and the consumer, provides good working conditions for employees, and has a positive impact on the environment.   Voluntary Sustainability Standards tend to focus mainly on business sectors such as forestry, farming, mining or fishing, but they also target a range of sustainability objectives, such as: respect for basic human rights; worker health and safety; environmental protection; community relations and others.   To learn more about the concepts and business perspectives around VSS, you can visit the knowledge base of the International Trade Centre’s (ITC) Standards Map see link below.   Types of VSS   VSS can come in various forms depending on which the sector, issue, production process or governance mechanisms they focus on. VSS are mostly governed by non-state actors that include: companies, industry associations not-for-profit organizations   Some well-known standards include GlobalGap, a farm insurance program, or Starbucks’ CAFÉ practice to ethically source coffee beans. Public agencies such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) also develop standards, for example, a process to certify whether products are organic. Other standards are the result of multi-stakeholder initiatives, including the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO).   The International Trade Centre (ITC) website offers information and resources that can give you further insights on the various types of VSS that may be in demand in the market.   Why do VSS matter for my business to trade?   VSS have become increasingly relevant for businesses, consumers and regulators because of their role in contributing to societal objectives such as social rights protection, fair prices, environment conservation, and food security.   Most VSS relate to environmental, social and economic objectives, which assess business practices to ensure sustainability through product quality, management practices and ethics.   With over 500 VSS now in existence, consumers, businesses, governments and other stakeholders are paying closer attention to how companies can consider the needs of consumers, workers and supply chain actors. While the adoption of VSS can represent business costs, it can also lead to benefits in improving management and monitoring systems, productivity, and access to credit, which are relevant for expanding business operations and reaching new markets through participation in international trade.   The International Trade Centre (ITC) offers a VSS SME (Small and Medium Enterprises) training programme for coaches to help business to prepare for VSS certification processes. Canada’s government website also includes an SME Sustainability Roadmap/SME Sustainability Map that may also be able to assist you to gain benefits from VSS certifications.   Who develops VSS?   Industry associations, consumer groups, and other stakeholders collaborate to develop VSS by sharing subject matter expertise and recognizing best business practices. VSS issuers vary according to the standards’ scope. For example, Cocoa Life, the Sustainable Agriculture Network, and the Ethical Trading Initiative are among the organizations granting VSS that apply to single products or a group of products. Other organizations such as Fairtrade Small Producers, and the Rainforest Alliance Sustainable Tourism, focus on the ability of businesses to meet social and environmental objectives.   How can I get started with certification for VSS?   A number of articles, tools and training courses on voluntary standards are available for business owners wishing to learn more about VSS. Some of these are highlighted as follows:   ITC offers an analytical toolkit that enables businesses to review and compare 320+ standards by product, sector, area, or focus. This tool focuses on voluntary sustainability standards (VSS), codes of conduct, audit protocols, reporting frameworks and company programs on sustainability. ITC’s new Sustainability Gateway provides examples of sustainability projects in action. Through ITC’s Sustainability Map, businesses can create an online profile to find partners and customers for gaining access to sustainable markets. The ISEAL Alliance represents a movement of sustainability standards that supports businesses to adopt good practices for mainstreaming sustainability in business operations.   Links to Supporting Information   Trade4MSME Guide Standards   Government of Canada’s SME Sustainability Roadmap SME Sustainability Roadmap (canada.ca)   International Trade Centre’s (ITC) Standards Map StandardsMap   The International Trade Centre (ITC) Sustainability Map Sustainability Map   The International Trade Centre (ITC) Home – SustainabilityMap (sustainabilitygateway.org)   International Trade Centre (ITC) VSS SME coaching program Virtual Workshopping – Training of Coaches on T4SD’s VSS Expert Methodology & Tool   The ISEAL Alliance ISEAL’s resources on sustainability practices for businesses   The Institute of Export and International Trade Export essentials: building and maintaining a green supply chain – The Institute of Export and International Trade

  2. Numérisation

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      Blockchain / Technologie des registres distribués (DLT)

      Qu'est-ce que la blockchain ? La blockchain, ou technologie des registres distribués (DLT), est un réseau numérique décentralisé d'enregistrements auxquels tous les utilisateurs autorisés peuvent accéder simultanément et qui sont automatiquement mis à jour et validés en cas de modification autorisée. Toutes les modifications sont horodatées et les transactions DLT sont basées sur le consensus, la réplication et l'immutabilité. Cela offre un niveau élevé de sécurité, même dans les transactions où les parties ne se connaissent pas ou ne disposent pas d'autres outils de vérification. Pourquoi la blockchain est-elle importante pour les MPME et le commerce ? La technologie blockchain a le potentiel de faciliter les transactions commerciales et l'accès au financement, tout en réduisant les coûts. En fournissant un enregistrement immuable des transactions, les MPME ayant accès à l'infrastructure informatique et au savoir-faire numérique adéquat peuvent être en mesure d'utiliser cette technologie dans leurs transactions commerciales internationales ou de fournir des documents alternatifs pour vérifier leur crédibilité lorsqu'elles tentent d'accéder au financement. De la gestion de l'identité aux contrats intelligents, un article de Finextra intitulé Blockchain : A game-changer for Small and Medium-sized enterprises fournit des informations supplémentaires sur les avantages de la blockchain pour les MPME. Que peuvent faire les décideurs politiques ? Si la technologie blockchain pourrait réduire les obstacles qui empêchent les MPME de s'engager davantage dans le commerce international, un certain nombre de défis doivent être relevés. Certains défis sont liés à l'adoption de la technologie blockchain, notamment : l'évolutivité, la sécurité, l'interopérabilité et l'absence de cadre juridique clair. D'autres défis concernent les MPME elles-mêmes, notamment le manque de compétences techniques et d'accès à internet pour adopter, utiliser et saisir les avantages de la technologie blockchain. Où les décideurs politiques peuvent-ils accéder à davantage de ressources ? L'Académie des PME du Centre du commerce international (CCI) : En partenariat avec l'Organisation mondiale du commerce, l'ITC propose un cours en ligne gratuit intitulé Introduction à la blockchain. Fondation pour les technologies de l'information et l'innovation (ITIF) : L'ITIF propose un guide de la blockchain à l'intention des décideurs politiques, qui explique ce qu'est la blockchain et ses applications. Il décrit également les éléments à prendre en compte pour réglementer cette technologie. L'Union internationale des télécommunications (UIT) : L'UIT propose un groupe de réflexion sur l'application de la technologie des registres distribués. De plus amples informations sont disponibles ici. L'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) : L'OCDE dispose de plusieurs ressources sur la blockchain à l'intention des décideurs politiques, notamment un chapitre de son rapport intitulé La transformation numérique des PME. Ce chapitre s'intitule Comment les écosystèmes blockchain peuvent-ils servir les PME. L'OCDE a également publié un rapport en 2019 sur l'environnement politique pour l'innovation et l'adoption de la blockchain. La Commission économique des Nations unies pour l'Europe (CEE-ONU) : La CEE-ONU continue d'étudier la technologie blockchain et sa relation avec le commerce, notamment par le biais d'événements et de documents tels que les applications techniques de la blockchain dans les produits livrables du CEFACT-ONU et la blockchain dans la facilitation du commerce. Le CEFACT-ONU désigne le Centre des Nations unies pour la facilitation du commerce et les transactions électroniques. La Conférence des Nations unies sur le commerce et le développement (CNUCED) : La CNUCED a publié A Policymaker's Guide to Blockchain Technology Implementation and Innovation avec des informations pratiques pour les décideurs sur les exigences réglementaires. L'Organisation mondiale du commerce : L'OMC a publié divers rapports relatifs à la DLT, notamment le rapport 2018 sur le commerce mondial intitulé L'avenir du commerce mondial : comment les technologies numériques transforment le commerce mondial, ainsi que le rapport intitulé La blockchain peut-elle révolutionner le commerce international ? Ces rapports donnent un aperçu des façons dont cette technologie peut avoir un impact sur le commerce et les MPME. D'autres ressources, y compris le cours en ligne conjoint avec l'ITC mentionné ci-dessus, sont disponibles ici. Où les décideurs peuvent-ils accéder aux meilleures pratiques et aux exemples nationaux ? Le Partenariat européen pour la blockchain (EBP) : Il s'agit d'une initiative visant à élaborer une stratégie de l'UE en matière de blockchain et à construire une infrastructure de blockchain pour les services publics. Visitez le site web de la Commission européenne. Le groupe de travail régional arabe sur les fintechs : Ce groupe de travail a publié un rapport sur les stratégies d'adoption des technologies DLT/ Blockchain dans les pays arabes. Le rapport comprend des recommandations et un aperçu d'autres initiatives nationales en matière de blockchain, notamment en Australie et dans la Fédération de Russie. Les cas d'utilisation de la technologie du grand livre distribué de l'UIT : Visitez le site web de l'UIT pour accéder à une série de cas étudiant la mise en pratique de la DLT.

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      Commerce transfrontalier sans papier

      What is cross-border paperless trade?   Paperless trade refers to the digitalization of information flows required to support goods and services crossing borders. By moving away from paper and opting for digital systems, governments and other stakeholders can speed up and facilitate trade (see guide on Trade Facilitation). Paperless trade can also yield significant environmental benefits by cutting out printing, dispatching, processing, exchanging, and the eventual discarding of vast quantities of paper documents. Paperless trade systems can be B2B, B2G or G2G and have various focuses (e.g. electronic customs declarations, electronic port management systems, electronic single windows).   Why is cross-border paperless trade important for MSMEs?   Paperless trade could significantly reduce trade costs and add up to major savings for traders, especially MSMEs. According to a study conducted by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and Coriolis Technology, digitizing transferable documents could boost MSME trade by 25% and lead to a 35% improvement in business efficiency. Paperless trade can reduce complexity by eliminating the need for copies of the same document, as well as making electronic and immediate transmission of those same documents possible. All of this can reduce the time and effort required, thereby assisting all traders, especially MSMEs, with managing trade-related procedures, such as trade finance requests and logistics operations.   What legal and technical aspects need to be considered when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems?   Legal issues that policy makers should consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include: Legal recognition of electronic transactions and documents: adopting a legal framework that recognizes electronic transactions and documents as equivalent to those based on paper is. The UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records (MLETR) provides useful international guidance in this respect. Trust services: for paperless trade systems to be interoperable, they need to rely on mechanisms guaranteeing an international alignment on what constitutes a valid trust service across borders. See the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures (MLES) for guidance on this issue. Data governance: When documents and information are exchanged between users using electronic systems or between electronic systems, the system must ensure confidentiality (i.e. information is private to only designated parties of the communications) and data integrity (i.e. the accuracy and consistency of data are maintained and assured over their entire life cycle). Liability and dispute management: trading parties and other concerned entities may suffer losses from the incorrect transmission or improper reuse of information and may seek compensation for those losses. Guaranteeing access to civil remedies for such losses and dispute settlement opportunities can help to enhance trust in paperless trade systems, and thereby support their adoption.   In addition to the legal framework, technical issues to consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include digital identity, electronic payments, data models and semantics, communication protocols, connectivity and data security. A list of standards for cross-border paperless trade that can be called upon when putting in place such systems can be found in the joint ICC-WTO Standards Toolkit for Cross-border Paperless Trade.   Detailed guidance on these various legal and technical issues is provided in the Cross-border Paperless Trade Toolkit developed by the WTO in collaboration with the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and UNCITRAL, as well as in the legal and technical readiness assessment guides and checklists developed by UNESCAP.   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? ICC’s Digital Standards Initiative (DSI): The International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) has developed a digital standards initiative. The DSI website includes a page for policymakerswith links to information related to adoption, economic analyses on the benefits of digitalization, and legislation related to the adoption of the MLETR. ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT’s Making the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement Work for SMEs: The International Trade Centre (ITC), the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and the United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade and Transport in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) provide guidance for policymakers to mainstream paperless measures and other trade facilitation components in strategies aimed at developing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Visit this ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT repor WTO-UNESCAP-UNCITRAL Cross-Border Paperless Trade Toolkit: The World Trade Organization (WTO), in collaboration with UNESCAP and UNCITRAL, developed a toolkit with technical and legal tools that can be called upon to adopt cross-border paperless trade systems. UN/CEFACT’s While Paper on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) has a policy document with frameworks, case studies and resources that can guide policymakers to align trade rules with trends in paperless trade. Visit this UN/CEFACT report. UNECE-UN/CEFACT’s Guides on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) have a number of papers and guides on paperless trade, including a 2018 white paper on paperless trade, a roadmap towards paperless trade, and trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation. UNESCAP’s Legal Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP has developed legal readiness assessment guides that countries can use to identify legal issue areas that are relevant to cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website. UNESCAP’s Technical Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP offers technical readiness assessment guides that countries can use to address technical issues on implementing electronic trade systems, paperless environment and actions needed for facilitating cross-border paperless trade data exchange. Visit this UNESCAP website. WCO’s Guide on Dematerialization & Paperless Processing: The World Customs Organization (WTO) has developed guidelines for customs authorities to support the use of electronic means for managing trade-related documents and reduce the hard copy requirements for such documents. Visit this WCO guide.   Where can policymakers access good practices and national examples? Single Window for Foreign Trade in Colombia: A Case Study on Trade Transactions: The International Trade Centre (ITC) has documented Colombia’s experience in establishing a national single window for foreign trade which has enable business to conduct paperless transaction with the support of information and communication technologies. Visit this ITC website. UNECE’s Regional Report on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation: The United Nations Commission for Europe (UNECE) provides an example of regional policy reviews on best practices and opportunities for cooperation in adopting paperless trade measures and other trade facilitation interventions. Visit this UNECE report. UNESCAP’s Readiness Assessments for Cross-Border Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific offers policy toolkits for assessing legal and technical readiness for cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website.

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      Cyberpréparation et cybersécurité

      What is cybersecurity?   Cybersecurity embodies a set of systems, processes, and actions that protect businesses from digital attacks. It is also known as information technology security or electronic information security. Using technology and digital platforms for commercial activities exposes companies to cybercrime like phishing, malware, or data and identity theft. To counteract these cyber threats, policymakers play a role in raising cybersecurity standards and developing regulatory frameworks that enhance cyber readiness capabilities in businesses. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) provides a definition on cybersecurity and action areas for policymakers in its Recommendation ITU-T X.1205.   Why does cybersecurity matter for small businesses?   An increasingly interconnected world through digital networks has enabled businesses to collect and share more information to reach new customers and innovate. But it has also led to a rise of criminal activities that profit from stealing customer data and spying on business practices. In 2019, a report found that about 7.9 billion records globally were exposed by data breaches, an increase of 112% from 2018. Small businesses are often security breach victims, representing more than 40% of attacks in 2019. Studies have also found that about two-thirds of small companies close within six months of being hacked. Because of these vulnerabilities, MSMEs are often the weak link in global value chains. Since small businesses are so vulnerable to cyber attacks and can link to large anchor firms in global value chains, cyber readiness can be a criteria for the selection of suppliers. Bearing this in mind, policymakers need to develop holistic strategies and action plans to mitigate these threats. For example, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Cybersecurity Policy Making at a Turning Point suggests key elements that cybersecurity strategies can incorporate. A McKinsey article has also outlined questions that can help policymakers formulate action plans on cybersecurity.   What are some cybersecurity risks facing small businesses?    The increased use of digital platforms creates security vulnerabilities that cyber criminals often seek to exploit for illicit gains. During the COVID-19 pandemic, for example, cyber criminals increasingly targeted small businesses due to their lower skills and resources to adopt cyber protection systems. In this context, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) has outlined four key cybersecurity threats facing small businesses: (1) phishing and business e-mail compromise attacks; (2) malware distribution using COVID-19 as bait; (3) remote working and supply chain threats; and (4) heightened vulnerability due to a lack of awareness.   Why is cyber readiness a trade issue?   Cyber readiness and security are important for international trade, especially digital trade. Trade relies on trust, and threats to cybersecurity undermine confidence in digital trade and transactions and make sellers and consumers think twice about using this option. Businesses recognize this fact but have to comply with national regulations. If those regulations do not follow a standardized, risk-based approach, then potential traders are put at a disadvantage. Furthermore, varying requirements add complexity and can significantly increase costs for MSMEs, while at the same time reducing security.   What can policymakers do to support cyber readiness?   Policymakers should aim for aligned approaches to cybersecurity, including consistent use of standards, to reduce complexity and support MSMEs. They can also play a role in raising awareness of the importance for MSMEs to be cyber ready through education programs, certification schemes, and toolkits for mitigating potential cyber risks. For example, the United Kingdom National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) offers a training programme to certify businesses and professionals with cyber security skills aimed at enabling participants to gain awareness, first-hand experience and expertise enhancement on cyber readiness. For more information, visit this NCSC website.   Where can policymakers access policy guidelines, frameworks and trainings? ITU National Cyber Security Strategy Guide: This resource provides actionable guidance for policymakers so that they can gain a comprehensive understanding of the purpose and content for developing a national cybersecurity strategy. Visit the ITU website. ITU Global Cyberecurity Index: This consists of a measurement tool that tracks country progress on cybersecurity commitments around capacity development, cooperation, and regulatory measures. Visit the ITU website. ITU Cybersecurity training: This training is designed to help policymakers understand lifecycles, principles, and good practices of cybersecurity strategies at the national level. Visit the ITU Academy.   Where can policymakers  find good practices and national examples? Canada’s National Cyber Security Action Plan (2019 – 2024): This plan was designed after a comprehensive cyber review conducted in 2016. It led to the development of a cybersecurity assessment and certification program for SMEs. Visit the Canadian government website. ITU’s National Cyber Security Strategies Repository: This resource maps out national policies, action plans, and other relevant resources reported by policymakers around the world. Visit the ITU website. United Kingdom’s Active Cyber Defence: This resource was launched in 2017 to counteract cyber attacks. It led to setting up the National Cyber Security Centre and other programs. A recent study found a 20% reduction in UK-hosted phishing attacks in the 18 months after the strategy was adopted . Visit the UK government website. United Kingdom National Cyber Security Center (NCSC): This center offers certified training in cybersecurity for businesses and professionals, along with advice and guidance on the topic. Visit the NCSC website. United States Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC): This framework looks to make accreditation affordable to small businesses to reduce their risks against certain cyber threats. Visit the U.S. CMMC.

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      Économie numérique

      What is the digital economy?   According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation (OECD), “the Digital Economy incorporates all economic activity reliant on, or significantly enhanced by the use of digital inputs, including digital technologies, digital infrastructure, digital services and data. It refers to all producers and consumers, including government, that are utilizing these digital inputs in their economic activities.” In essence, this broad definition captures all aspects of our new digitally supported world, from e-commerce to digitally developed and delivered services like web design. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) works to measure e-commerce and the digital economy, with information available here.   What is the state of play of e-commerce discussions under the WTO?   Issues related to the digital economy are discussed at the WTO in various bodies, including under the Work Programme on E-Commerce, which was established in September 1998, and the Joint Statement Initiative on E-Commerce, which was launched at the 11th Ministerial Conference (MC11) in Buenos Aires in 2017. In addition, since 1998 WTO Members have agreed not to impose customs duties on electronic transmissions. For more information on such discussions, see the dedicated WTO page on e-commerce. Information on other WTO discussions related to the digital economy can be found on the WTO Digital Technologies & Trade page.   What trade opportunities does the digital economy hold for MSMEs?   The digital economy provides many important business tools and trade opportunities for businesses, especially MSMEs. Some of these include:  Digital banking and e-payments: Electronic finance can provide individuals with easier, cheaper, and safer access to financial services. Additionally, e-payments have made it possible to conduct transactions online, making it easier to transfer money across accounts for a good bought or a service rendered. For more information see the guide on electronic cross-border payments and visit the International Chamber of Commerce website.  Digital platforms: The new digital economy is based around platforms – search systems, marketplaces, application development software, and some others. These platforms have applications for all businesses, opening the doors to new industries and players, from micro firms to digitally connected businesses in every digitally connected economy of the world. For more information, see the 2021 Global Value Chain Development report. Blockchain: Blockchain, or distributed ledger technology (DLT), is a decentralized digital network of records that can be simultaneously accessed by all permitted users and that are automatically updated and validated if an authorized change is made. Blockchain technology holds the potential to facilitate trade transactions and access to finance as well as to reduce costs. See the Guide on Blockchain for more information. E-commerce: This covers goods and services sold and bought online, including transactions done through marketplaces. It reduces trade barriers and increases opportunities for businesses by expanding their sales. In order for businesses to access these benefits, it is important that national economies be e-commerce ready. For more information, see the Guide on e-commerce readiness. Visit UNCTAD’s Digital Economy Report. E-documents/e-signatures: Electronic documents can speed a transaction. For example, electronic trade documents, such as for customs and trade transactions, reduce submission errors and the costs of paperwork and procedures. For more, visit Trade Finance Global.     Risks and inequities of the digital economy  The digital economy has many risks, especially for MSMEs, that need consideration and care. A value chain is only as secure as its weakest link and businesses of every size are targets for cybercrime, which is why it is essential for MSMEs to be prepared. Visit the Cyber Readiness Institute and see the guide on cyber readiness. Another important note about the digital economy is its uneven access. Many are excluded from the digital economy either because of access to technology or lack of training and understanding of these new resources. For MSMEs in particular, lack of access to capital can prevent integration of new digital technologies. Where can I access further resources?  eTrade for all, initiated by UNCTAD, is a global partnership to make the digital economy and its opportunities more accessible. eTrade for all links to several resources, including publications on digitalization and e-commerce. It also has information on development solutions, including in seven key policy areas, with contact information for interested policymakers to learn more.  The OECD published a report on The Digital Transformation of SMEs. This report looks at the need for SMEs to be prepared to adopt digital technology, the gaps that persist in technology adoption, and recent trends. The OECD Digital for SMEs Global Initiative provides links to reports, the programme of work for this initiative, and related events. UNCTAD’s Digital Economy Reports cover themes ranging from software and cloud computing to value creation and cross-border data flows. These reports provide an in-depth look at the various aspects of the digital economy. UNCTAD also hosts many dialogues and conferences related to digitalization and SMEs. More information is available on their website. WTO’s Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) Database: Is a repository of the legal texts and annexes of all RTAs notified by WTO members, including preferential tariffs and trade data provided by RTA parties, and other related documents. The database also provides information on a number of provisions related to the digital economy, such as e-commerce. For more information on RTA provisions, visit the WTO’s Glossary on RTA provisions and the WTO RTA Database.

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      Évaluation de l'état de préparation au commerce électronique

      How can a country be ready for e-commerce?   E-commerce readiness refers to a variety of policies, frameworks, and institutional actions that enable countries to engage effectively in e-commerce. It considers country-level dimensions on trade, technology, education, finance, and law that determine challenges and opportunities for public and private sector actors to enable an e-commerce ecosystem. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has an initiative known as eTrade for All, which advises countries to engage in e-commerce by addressing seven policy areas: (a) e-commerce readiness assessments; (b) information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure and services; (c) payment solutions; (d) trade logistics; (e) legal and regulatory frameworks; (f) skills development; and (g) access to financing.     What could e-commerce readiness assessments aim for?    Developing national e-commerce readiness starts with conducting a nationwide assessment of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges in the enabling environment for an e-commerce ecosystem. An e-commerce readiness assessment can inform decision-makers across public and private sector institutions about the priority areas and key stakeholders that can play a role in enabling a national e-commerce ecosystem.    Which policy areas are relevant for e-commerce readiness?    UNCTAD’s eTrade for all initiative suggests seven policy areas and provides an array of programs to support e-commerce readiness across the world. Some examples per policy area that can be considered are as follows: E-commerce readiness assessments: The World Customs Organization (WCO) has an E-Commerce Web-Corner that provides instruments, topics, and tools for developing e-commerce policies and strategies. ICT infrastructure and services: UNCTAD offers an ICT Policy Review Programme, which examines national policies on information and communication technologies to identify enablers and obstacles for e-commerce readiness. Payment solutions: The Universal Postal Union (UPU) in partnership with other private sector institutions, runs the Financial Inclusion Technical Assistance Facility. This facility is designed to assist countries in adopting the latest technologies for enhancing efficiency and outreach in postal financial services.  Trade logistics: The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) provides advice for countries to facilitate trade through measures that range from creating national single windows to promoting paperless trade transactions.  Legal and regulatory frameworks: UNCTAD provides assistance to countries in developing legal and regulatory frameworks to build confidence in e-commerce, while promoting secure online business and economic wellbeing.  Skills development: UNCTAD has a program known as TradeForTrade, which builds trade knowledge and skills for governments, business, and citizens to seize opportunities in international trade and e-commerce.  Access to financing: The SME Finance Forum is a global network where actors engaged in funneling financing for e-commerce projects can connect and cooperate.   Where can I access further resources on policy frameworks and guidelines? The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Measuring electronic commerce: The OECD provides a framework for identifying issues associated with measuring e-commerce. Visit the OECD website. The International Trade Centre’s (ITC) Bringing SMEs onto the E-commerce Highway: This resource addresses e-commerce policies that affect the engagement of small businesses in cross-border e-commerce. Visit the ITC website. The Commonwealth’s Policy Guide for Least Developed Countries, Small States and Sub-Saharan Africa: This publication offers recommendations that can help some developing countries to build capacity for developing e-commerce policies and engaging in global digital trade matters. Visit the Commonwealth website. WTO’s Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) Database: Is a repository of the legal texts and annexes of all RTAs notified by WTO members, including preferential tariff and trade data provided by RTA parties, and other related documents. The database also provides information on e-commerce provisions contained in RTAs. Visit the RTA Database. For more information on the type of e-commerce provisions that RTAs may include, visit the WTO’s Glossary on RTA provisions.   Where can I see best practices and national examples? Regulations, Policies and Initiatives on E-Commerce and Digital Economy for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) MSMEs’ Participation in the Region: This resource presents applied research and analysis on policies and actors that play a role in enabling small business engagement in e-commerce. Visit the APEC website. UNCTAD Rapid eTrade Readiness Assessments of Least Developed Countries: This resource consists of a tool to inform policy measures that can support the capacity of least developed countries to assess e-commerce readiness. Visit the UNCTAD website.

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      Paiements électroniques transfrontaliers

      Qu'est-ce que les paiements électroniques ? Les paiements électroniques (e-paiements) sont des transactions numériques que les utilisateurs effectuent pour payer des biens et des services sur l'internet. Pour effectuer des paiements électroniques, les entreprises et les particuliers utilisent diverses méthodes de paiement électronique qui vont des paiements par débit et par carte aux transferts bancaires, en passant par le paiement mobile et les transactions par chambre de compensation automatisée (ACH). Les paiements électroniques sont essentiellement des opérations financières effectuées à l'aide d'appareils électroniques, tels que des ordinateurs, des smartphones ou des tablettes. Pour plus d'informations sur les modèles de paiement électronique et les types de transactions, voir le document Electronic Payment Services and E-Commerce de la Chambre de commerce internationale (CCI) et la note fintech 19/91 du Fonds monétaire international (FMI) intitulée "The Rise of Digital Money" (L'essor de l'argent numérique). Pourquoi les paiements électroniques sont-ils importants pour le commerce des MPME ? Les développements technologiques de ces dernières années ont permis aux institutions financières et non financières de moderniser les méthodes de paiement qu'elles proposent aux utilisateurs. Des études menées par la Banque des règlements internationaux (BRI) et le Fonds monétaire international ont mis en évidence la croissance rapide des technologies numériques par rapport aux instruments traditionnels. Les technologies numériques offrant des instruments de paiement plus efficaces et moins coûteux, les petites entreprises peuvent tirer profit des options de paiement électronique pour réduire l'incertitude et les coûts, en particulier pour les transactions commerciales internationales. Les autres avantages des paiements électroniques pour les MPME en matière de commerce vont de l'accélération des activités de paiement transfrontalier à la douane à la réduction des risques de fraude et des lourdes dépenses administratives. Pour plus d'informations sur les paiements électroniques et les transactions en ligne, voir les articles et documents suivants : L'article de la BRI sur les tendances des paiements numériques, "Payments go (even more) digital" ; Le document de travail du FMI WP/21/177 "Is Mobile Money Part of Money ? Understanding the Trends and Measurement" ; Le guide de mise en œuvre de la facilitation des échanges de la Commission économique des Nations unies pour l'Europe (CEE-ONU) sur les paiements électroniques ; et Le document de l'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) intitulé "Trade finance for SMEs in the digital era" (Financement du commerce pour les PME à l'ère numérique). Quels défis les MPME rencontrent-elles dans l'utilisation des paiements électroniques ? Alors que les technologies numériques ont contribué à l'expansion rapide des services financiers, les marchés des paiements électroniques sont confrontés à des défis réglementaires qui empêchent les petites entreprises d'avoir un meilleur accès aux options de paiement transfrontalier pour le commerce. Une étude récente de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) a montré que seul un quart des membres de l'OMC ont entièrement libéralisé les paiements transfrontaliers dans le cadre des engagements de l'Accord général sur le commerce des services (AGCS). Le Forum économique mondial (WEF) et la Chambre de commerce internationale (ICC) ont identifié quatre domaines clés dans lesquels les décideurs politiques pourraient s'engager pour réduire les frictions sur les marchés des paiements électroniques : (a) l'accès au marché et les barrières au traitement national ; (b) les normes techniques ; (c) la sécurité et la confiance ; et (d) la coordination et la supervision des politiques. Pour plus d'informations, voir la page Connecting Digital Economies du WEF et son livre blanc Addressing E-Payment Challenges in Global E-Commerce, ainsi que la note de synthèse d'ICC sur les services de paiement électronique et le commerce électronique. Où puis-je trouver des ressources sur les cadres et les recommandations politiques ? Recommandations politiques pour les paiements transfrontaliers : Le WEF souligne les domaines clés dans lesquels les décideurs politiques peuvent s'engager et coopérer pour réduire la complexité des marchés des paiements électroniques. Visitez le site Connecting Digital Economies : Recommandations politiques pour les paiements transfrontaliers. Portée des engagements existants en matière de services de paiement électronique : Le WEF décrit l'état actuel des engagements multilatéraux et des négociations plurilatérales sur les aspects commerciaux des services de paiement électronique et du commerce électronique. Lire le document du WEF. Orientation de la politique des consommateurs en matière de paiements mobiles et en ligne : L'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) propose des orientations que les décideurs politiques peuvent utiliser pour aborder les questions de protection des consommateurs lors de l'élaboration de politiques ciblant les marchés des paiements mobiles et en ligne. Lire le guide de l'OCDE. Cadre analytique sur les réglementations relatives aux fintechs et aux paiements : Le Fonds monétaire international (FMI) documente les expériences internationales récentes en matière de modernisation des cadres juridiques et réglementaires pour les services de paiement. Lien vers le cadre du FMI. Où puis-je trouver des bonnes pratiques et des exemples nationaux ? Guide des paiements électroniques pour les pays en développement : Le Centre du commerce international (CCI) a élaboré un guide sur les réformes juridiques et réglementaires et les meilleures pratiques que les décideurs politiques peuvent utiliser pour aborder les questions de politique de paiement électronique dans les pays en développement. Consultez le guide de l'ITC. Initiatives d'acceptation des paiements électroniques : La Banque mondiale a réalisé une analyse documentaire et des exemples nationaux pour aider les décideurs politiques à concevoir des mesures d'incitation visant à favoriser l'acceptation des paiements électroniques. Accéder à l'étude de la Banque mondiale.

  3. Considérations juridiques et propriété intellectuelle

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      Contrats et litiges commerciaux

      Why do MSMEs need model contracts?   MSME often have relatively lower access to legal advice when negotiating a contract or managing a dispute than large firms. Also, MSMEs may be the weaker contractual parties and could have difficulties in ensuring that the contractual balance is kept. A wide range of international conventions and model laws enable MSMEs to access a fairer and more uniform contractual regime and to reduce their contract administration costs. Having access to standardized and uniform contracts can simplify establishing new international relations between businesses and reduce trade costs for MSMEs.    With this in mind, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) has developed a wide range of conventions, model laws, and contractual terms that can be used by either governments or by parties to international trade contracts. This includes conventions on international commercial arbitration, mediation, and electronic commerce, among others. For a full list of UNCITRAL instruments, visit this website.   One notable instrument is the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), also referred to as the Vienna Convention. This instrument provides substantive and procedural rules governing contracts for the international sales of goods between private businesses, excluding sales to consumers and sales of services, as well as sales of certain specified types of goods. As of September 2020, UNCITRAL reported that 94 States had acceded to the CISG (access the full list of States).   How can governments help?    Ensuring that MSMEs can enforce their contractual rights, regardless of the place where the contract is executed, can avoid parallel proceedings. In turn, this can reduce MSMEs’ costs of administering their contracts and disputes with foreign counterparts. Beyond the CISG, multiple international organizations have developed conventions to which governments can adhere and model laws that can provide guidance to facilitate the recognition and enforcement of foreign awards.    UNIDROIT instruments  The International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT) has developed a wide range of model laws and conventions for specific trade-related transactions. These include, among others, franchising, agency, factoring, leasing, and international sales of goods, as well as common contractual principles that parties to international trade contracts can use. The UNIDROIT Principles 2016 is a valuable resource for more information.    The Hague Judgments Convention, formally the Convention of 2 July 2019 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil or Commercial Matters  The Convention establishes common criteria according to which judgments from one Contracting Party will be recognised and/or enforced in another. The Convention facilitates the circulation of judgments among its Contracting Parties, thus ensuring that a successful party will have a meaningful judgment. This approach also provides this party with an opportunity to enforce the judicial award abroad with shorter timeframes, costs, and risks. The Convention applies to the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil or commercial matters, including consumer and individual employment contracts. The Convention does not apply to the status and legal capacity of natural persons, family law matters, insolvency, privacy, intellectual property, and certain antitrust matters.  The full text of the Convention can be accessed online.    HCCH Convention of 30 June 2005 on Choice of Court Agreement The Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCCH) Choice of Court Convention ensures that parties’ choice of forum is upheld by courts, thereby creating a climate more favourable to international trade and investment. The Convention contains three key obligations. The first of these is that the court chosen by the parties must hear the dispute. Any non-chosen court must suspend/dismiss proceedings, in favour of the chosen court. Judgments given by the chosen court must be recognized and enforced in other Contracting Parties, ensuring their global circulation. As such, the Choice of Court Convention has a similar effect to the recognition of arbitration agreements under the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. Judgments given by the chosen court must be recognised and enforced in other Contracting Parties (Article 8), ensuring their global circulation. The Convention can be accessed at the HCCH website.    UNCITRAL, HCCH, and UNIDROIT Legal Guide to Uniform Instruments in the Area of International Commercial Contracts, with a Focus on Sales The purpose of the UNCITRAL, HCCH, and UNIDROIT Guide is to provide a description on the complementary nature of the UNDROIT, UNCITRAL, and the Hague Conference’s instruments when more than one instrument applies to a transaction.   United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York, 10 June 1958)  The New York Convention applies to the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards and the referral by a court to arbitration. It establishes common criteria for recognizing and/or enforcing arbitral awards made in the territory of one Contracting Party in that of another.

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      Protection de la propriété intellectuelle et litiges

      What is intellectual property (IP) and what are IP rights?   IP refers to creations of the mind and includes inventive products or processes, designs, distinctive signs, and creative works. Among other scenarios, IP may be generated by investments in research and development, or by activities aimed at differentiating products by improving product quality, reducing production costs, and/or delivering greater value to customers. IP rights are generally private rights granted by governments to individuals, businesses, or associations to exclude others from using a protected work without the owner’s permission for a limited period of time, subject to exceptions, limitations, and exclusions. IP rights are granted and enforced at the domestic level and valid only in the jurisdiction in which they have been registered or otherwise acquired. See the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Guide to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) for an introduction to the organization’s intellectual property rules, as well as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the International Trade Centre’s (ITC) guidebook on Secrets of Intellectual Property, A guide for small and medium-sized exporters for more information.       What are the different types of IP rights?    IP assets can be grouped into two main categories: Copyright and related rights: Copyright refers to the rights of authors in their literary and artistic works, including books, music, films, computer programs, and advertisements. Related rights include the rights of performers over their performances, producers over their “fixations” (recordings) of performances, and broadcasting organizations over their broadcasts. Copyright and related rights seek to encourage and reward creative work. See WIPO’s Understanding Copyright and Related Rights for more information. Industrial property: Industrial property can be sub-divided into two fields:  Distinctive signs and geographical indications, which inform consumers, prevent consumer deception, and help to ensure fair competition among producers. Within this field, there are further sub-categories of trademarks and geographical indications. Trademarks: These are any sign or combination of signs, including words, letters, numerals, figurative elements, and colour combinations, capable of distinguishing the goods and services of one undertaking from another. These signs or sign combinations be protected as a trademark. Geographical indications (GIs): A GI is a sign that identifies a good as originating in a place where a given quality, reputation, or other characteristic is essentially attributable to its origin. Some examples are well-known names of food products from specific locations, including coffee, cheese, wine, and spirits. Patents, industrial designs, and trade secrets, among other types of IP, which aim to stimulate innovation and enable the transfer and dissemination of technology and associated know-how. See WIPO’s Understanding Industrial Property for more information. Within this field, there are several sub-categories. Patents: Patents protect inventions or new solutions to a technical problem in the form of a product or process. Various technologies found in smartphones, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and self-driving cars are patented in certain jurisdictions. Industrial designs:  New and independently created ornamental or non-functional aspects of an article, such as its shape, patterns, lines, or colours, may be protected as an industrial design. Businesses create industrial designs to customize products, develop new market segments, and strengthen brands. Household products, textiles, toys, and cars often incorporate industrial designs.  Trade secrets: Information that is secret, has commercial value because it is secret, and has been subject to reasonable steps to keep it secret may be legally protected as a trade secret. Also known as “undisclosed information,” manufacturing processes, algorithms, customer lists, and formulas for producing products may constitute trade secrets.   Why does IP matter for MSMEs to trade?    Domestic IP laws and regulations have implications for product development, design, and delivery; marketing; exporting; licensing and franchising; and pricing. They can also influence businesses’ ability to raise financial resources and attract foreign investors and partners. Identifying the various types of IP that businesses develop, which IP rights to protect and enforce, and in which jurisdictions, are important steps for international traders. Researching which IP rights are already protected for other businesses in the fields where a company conducts its activities in a target market is also critical to avoid infringement.  As IP rights are protected and enforced at the domestic level, exporting goods and services often entails navigating through IP laws and procedures applicable in each target market to assess whether export licenses are needed and which trademarks are appropriate for the markets considered. For more information on why IP rights matter for exporters, see this WIPO training of trainers presentation.    What issues can emerge for MSMEs in dealing with IP frameworks?   MSMEs are not always aware of the benefits of IP and may also lack the resources to effectively protect what IP they have registered. Additionally, MSMEs may unknowingly infringe on another company’s or individual’s IP rights and be taken to task, especially when they enter unfamiliar jurisdictions. The variations in IP frameworks between markets contribute to the IP challenges faced by smaller firms. There are a number of initiatives that pursue harmonization and integration of these frameworks, especially at the regional level.   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks and guidelines?    The World Intellectual Property Organization offers a number of useful tools, including: WIPO Methodology and Tools for the Development of National IP Strategies: WIPO helps countries in formulating IP strategies with linkages to national development goals through research, audits, and national consultation processes. Visit the WIPO website. WIPO Policy and Legislative Assistance: WIPO provides policy and legislative advice in the areas of copyright, patents, trademarks, industrial designs, geographical indications, genetic resources, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, and building respect for IP. Visit the WIPO website. WIPO IP Office Business Solutions: WIPO offers business solutions to IP offices in national and regional institutions that play a role in enabling countries to participate effectively in the global IP system. Visit the WIPO website.   Where can policymakers access best practices and national examples? Guidebook for SMEs’ IP-Business Cycle: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum compiled a list of policies and models that public institutions in Asia and the Pacific can use to formulate IP policies and programs with a small business focus. Visit the APEC website. OECD SME Policy Index (Latin America and the Caribbean): The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has developed a SME Policy Index that assesses measures related to small business policy design, including IP-related matters. The SME Policy Index has been applied to Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru and throughout the Latin America and the Caribbean region. Visit the OECD website.

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      Mesures correctives commerciales

      What are trade remedies?   Trade remedies are border measures applied by governments on imports of a product where the total imports have surged (safeguards) or the imports are dumped or subsidized (anti-dumping and countervailing measures, respectively); and where the imports in question have been found to have injured the competing domestic industries. Anti-dumping, countervailing, and safeguard measures are regulated by three separate agreements of the World Trade Organization (WTO): the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (known as the Anti-Dumping Agreement); the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM Agreement); and the Agreement on Safeguards (SG Agreement). For small businesses, trade remedies should be looked at from two perspectives: where the products of small businesses are subject to trade remedies investigations and measures in export markets; and where small businesses request the application of trade remedies in respect of imports competing with their products in their own markets. For more information on trade remedies, please see WTO’s Trade Topics on Anti-Dumping, Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, and Safeguard Measures. How can trade remedies affect small businesses that export?   Where small businesses are exporting a product to a market in which a trade remedy on that product is in effect, the product will be subject to additional import duties, or in the case of safeguards possibly quantitative restrictions. These remedies will increase the costs of and regulations for entering the goods into the export market, beyond the normally applicable customs duties and other taxes applicable to imports.   If a small business participated in the investigation leading up to the application of a trade remedy measure, this would imply work and associated costs in providing the information required in the investigation, and in representing the business’s interests before the investigating authority in the importing country that is conducting the investigation.   Small businesses that export thus should be familiar with the nature and operation of trade remedies, and of the investigations that must be conducted for trade remedies to be applied. For more information, see WTO’s Handbook of Anti-Dumping Investigations. What can policymakers do? When governments conduct trade remedies investigations, they are expected to bear in mind the challenges faced by small businesses that are exporters of the investigated goods, as provided for in Article 16.3 of the Antidumping Agreement: “The authorities shall take due account of any difficulties experienced by interested parties, in particular small companies, in supplying information requested, and shall provide any assistance practicable.” Governments of exporting economies also can provide assistance to small business exporters that find themselves involved in trade remedy investigations or affected by trade remedy measures.   How can small businesses seek the application of trade remedies on imports of products they produce?   Depending on the circumstances, trade remedies may be one possible source of relief for small businesses facing competition from imports that may be dumped or subsidized, or may be surging. Representativity requirements on domestic producers seeking application of anti-dumping and countervailing measures on behalf of a domestic industry mean that small businesses would need to work with others in their industry to apply for trade remedy relief. See experiences documented by government offices, such as the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). Governments can provide assistance to applicants, including small businesses, in preparing applications to open trade remedy investigations. What can policymakers do? Policymakers can, for instance, develop knowledge portals with clear guidelines on procedures that small businesses could follow to file a trade remedy application. Examples of such initiatives include the European Commission’s SME Trade Defence Helpdesk and the United States International Trade Commission’s Trade Remedy Assistance Program.   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Briefs on trade remedies: The WTO provides dedicated webpages with information on official meeting documents, reports and member actions on trade remedies. Visit the separate WTO webpages dedicated to anti-dumping, countervailing and safeguards measures.   Where can policymakers access information on good practices or national examples? A Business Guide to the African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: The International Trade Centre (ITC) has prepared a guide for policymakers to understand provisions on trade remedies and other areas that expected from the African Continental Free Trade Agreement. Link to this ITC report. Australia’s International Trade Remedies Advisory Service (ITRA Services): Australia has a government office dedicated to support importers deal with trade remedies by preparing applications for trade remedy investigations, continuation inquiries, duty assessments, and exemptions. Visit this IRTA Services website. European Commission’s Guide on Trade Defence Instruments for Exporters: The European Union offers a guide for exporters to better understand concepts around trade remedies and receive advisory sources on how to manage trade defence investigations. Visit this European Commission guide. European Commission’s Guide on Trade Defence Instruments for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises: The European Commission provides a guide for small businesses on principles, procedures and business support mechanisms related to trade defence instruments used by European Union member states. Visit this European Commission guide. International Trade Centre’s Business Guides to Trade Remedies in Brazil: The International Trade Centre (ITC) offers a guide for businesses to gather relevant information on trade remedy procedures required by Brazil. Visit this ITC guide. International Trade Administration Commission (ITAC) of South Africa: ITAC has a Trade Remedies Unit that administers trade remedies instruments by investigating cases of dumping, subsidised imports and surge of imports, in accordance with domestic legislation and consistency with WTO rules. Please visit this ITAC website. Philippines’s Bureau of Import Services: The Philippines government has a dedicated unit where entities that are concerned with unfair market practices can file a trade remedy petition and submit the relevant forms to specified contact points. Visit this Philippines website.

  4. Réglementation

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      Politique de concurrence

      What is competition policy?   Competition policy comprises the full range of measures that may be used to promote competitive market structures and behaviour by enterprises, including but not limited to a comprehensive competition law dealing with anti-competitive practices of enterprises.   Why does competition policy matter for MSMEs?   Well-designed and implemented competition policy supports efficient and well-functioning markets, benefits end, and industrial, consumers, and supports innovation. Anti-competitive practices, if left unaddressed, can result in slower economic development, misallocation of resources, higher prices, lower product quality or limited consumer choice. For micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to thrive, they need a competitive environment in which they can compete on the merits and without being treated unfairly by their suppliers, consumers or competitors. Such an environment creates incentives for MSMEs to innovate and bring to market new goods or services.   Competition policy concerns MSMEs both as possible perpetrators of anti-competitive practices and as victims of such practices. To avoid becoming perpetrators, MSMEs need to take pains to comply with any binding rules implementing a chosen competition policy (competition law). Competition law violations such as bid rigging or other anti-competitive coordination involving competitors or distributors may expose MSMEs to substantial financial penalties. As victims of anti-competitive practices, MSMEs may be forced out of a market, lose market share or be unable to enter a new market, if such practices are left unchallenged.   What issues can emerge for MSME perpetrators of competition law violations and what are possible policy options? Lack of awareness on the part of MSMEs of the risks associated with competition law violations. Policy option: Undertaking targeted governmental campaigns to educate MSMEs about their exposure to legal risks under competition law. Competition law is complex and can be difficult for MSMEs to navigate competently and confidently. Policy option: Enhancing clarity of aspects of competition law of concern to MSMEs by issuing competition authority guidelines to enhance legal certainty about what SMEs are or are not permitted to do. Insufficient diligence by MSMEs to prevent competition law violations. Policy option: Promoting and encouraging the adoption and use by MSMEs of compliance programmes to protect themselves against inadvertent competition law violations.   What issues can emerge for MSME victims of competition law violations and what are possible policy options? Dominant companies may abuse their market position to disadvantage MSMEs (e.g., by refusing to supply them, charging excessive prices, boycotting them, hindering access to essential facilities, etc.). Policy option: Prohibiting companies from abusing a dominant position. Anti-competitive agreements imposed by a supplier on its dealers (e.g., vertical cartels providing for resale price maintenance) or concluded among suppliers (e.g., horizontal price-fixing cartels) may prevent MSME dealers from competing effectively with other dealers or MSME purchasers from being profitable. Policy option: Prohibiting anti-competitive agreements (cartels) among companies (Caveat: It may be appropriate to permit cooperation among MSMEs that is not anti-competitive and clarify the permitted scope for cooperation through appropriate guidelines. MSMEs may need to be able to enter into cooperative agreements with other MSMEs, e.g., on research and development or distribution, to be efficient and competitive). Mergers and acquisitions can create a dominant position of a newly created company or reinforce a dominant position of an existing company to the detriment of MSMEs operating in the same market. Policy option: Controlling mergers and acquisitions, including by prohibiting them, where appropriate, or permitting them under conditions. MSMEs may hesitate to contribute to the enforcement of competition law (e.g., because of fears about reprisals from companies engaging in anti-competitive conduct, the lack of prompt and effective remedies, or insufficient expertise on competition law). Policy options: Encouraging enforcement of competition law by or on behalf of MSMEs by allowing anonymous reports to competition authorities about suspected violations; providing for the possibility of requesting urgent interim measures to avoid serious irreparable harm; and supporting MSMEs in getting access to affordable competition law expertise (e.g., from competition authorities or other entities). Where can policymakers access more resources? The United Nations set of principles on competitionis a set of non-binding multilateral instrument setting out principles aimed at, inter alia, attaining greater efficiency in international trade and development through the creation, encouragement and protection of competition; control of the concentration of capital and/or economic power; and encouragement of innovation. UNCTAD’s Training course on the Interface between SME Development and Competition Policy highlights how competition policy and law can be leveraged to further market entry, growth, and sustainable development of MSMEs, with a particular focus on times of emergency (COVID-19 pandemic). The ICC SME Toolkitdeveloped by the International Chamber of Commerce suggests practical tools for small businesses to enhance compliance with competition law. The UNESCAP report on the Role of Competition Policy in Strengthening the Business Environment for MSMEs in the ASEAN Region discusses issues of competition policy and law relevant to MSMEs in Southeast Asia and includes recommendations on how competition policy and MSME policy can work together to benefit those enterprises. APEC’s issues paper on SMEs, Competition Law and Economic Growth examines the theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the synergies between SMEs, competition law and economic growth with a particular focus on the APEC region. Competition Policy For Development: A Report On UNCTAD’s Capacity Building And Technical Assistance Programme sheds light on UNCTAD’s mandate as a focal point of competition-related discussions within the UN system and highlights the capacity building work carried out by the organization.

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      Marchés publics

      What is government procurement?   Government procurement (GP) refers generally to the purchase, lease or rental of goods, services, and construction services by governmental bodies in fulfilment of their public service responsibilities.   Why does GP matter for MSMEs?   GP typically represents a large volume of domestic public expenditure, amounting to 10-15 percent of a country’s GDP on average. It thus constitutes a highly significant economic opportunity for MSMEs seeking to do business with governments. In most countries, MSMEs are by far the most common enterprises, and hence account for a significant proportion of overall employment. However, MSMEs are generally underrepresented in most countries’ GP markets.   What issues can emerge for MSMEs in their home markets and what are possible policy options to enhance SME participation in government procurement? Difficulties in accessing information about GP opportunities Enhancing transparency Providing for electronic access to tender opportunities and information Inexperience in tendering for government contracts Building MSME capacity to participate in tenders at home Offering post-award debriefing sessions by procuring entities with unsuccessful MSME candidates Organizing training, coaching and technical assistance activities, including web-based ones, for MSMEs focusing on effective participation in tenders (such as preparing offers and submitting electronic tenders) Burdensome requirements and other barriers to MSME participation in tenders Designing MSME-friendly participation-related requirements Reducing the burden of tender preparation, including by relaxing documentation requirements (self-certification, documentary evidence only on request), setting workable time limits for MSMEs and providing for electronic submission of tenders. Minimizing registration-related fees and limiting financial tender guarantees in the case of MSMEs Providing for proportionate and appropriate technical, commercial and financial conditions for participation (e.g. lower annual turnover allowing MSMEs bids, reasonable prior experience requirements, etc.) Overly large procurement contracts that MSMEs could not fulfil Designing MSME-friendly public contracts Splitting large public contracts into smaller ones that MSMEs could fulfil (lots) and allowing MSME to bid jointly or to subcontract Late payment by procuring entities Promoting good payment behaviour by procuring entities Ensuring timely payment to support MSME cashflow or providing for interim or advance payment   What issues can emerge for MSMEs in markets abroad and what are possible policy options to enhance SME participation in government procurement? Obstacles to accessing government procurement markets abroad Implementing a trade policy oriented towards the progressive opening of the domestic government procurement market on the basis of mutual reciprocity Negotiating accession to the plurilateral WTO Government Procurement Agreement 2012 (GPA 2012) and concluding bilateral free trade agreements containing government procurement chapters with market access commitments, which options provide legal guarantees for MSMEs from signatory countries to access covered government procurement markets abroad Inexperience in tendering for government contracts Building MSME capacity to participate in tenders abroad Organizing training, coaching and other technical assistance activities for MSMEs seeking to participate in tenders abroad, organized by their Ministries or official export promotion agencies at home and embassies or helpdesks in their export markets   Where can I access resources on policy frameworks and guidelines? The Asian Development Bank’s Guide on SME Development gives an overview on barriers faced by MSMEs in participating in government procurement and options for policy makers. The UNDP’s Playbook on Inclusive Public Procurement explores how supplier diversity can be promoted in keeping with important government procurement principles. The Open Contracting Partnership’s Guide on Access to Government Procurement by Minority-Owned Small Businesses explores how local governments can expand access to government procurement opportunities for minority-owned small businesses. For case studies, see also the Open Contracting Partnership’s Guide on Inclusive and Effective Public Procurement: Findings and Lessons from Research in 12 Countries. The OECD Public Governance Reviews. Report on SMEs in public procurement practices and strategies for shared benefits takes stock of the policy options used in OECD and non-OECD economies to integrate SME considerations in government procurement. The World Bank Group/Business Environment Working Group (BEWG) of the Donor Committee for Enterprise Development (DCED)’s Technical Report: Policies that Promote SME Participation in Public Procurement analyses and assesses the impact of various preferential treatment policies benefitting SMEs in government procurement based on a series of country level case studies. The International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO’s Guide on SME and export-led growth in public procurement programmes identifies how programmes in government procurement can support SMEs in becoming more competitive as far as exportation is concerned. Public’s Guide on “Global SME Procurement Benchmark” focuses on good practices for promoting SME participation in government procurement and points to key opportunity areas. The WTO GPA Knowledge Series event on “Bidding for government procurement opportunities abroad: the lowdown for SMEs” gives practical advice on how SMEs can take advantage of opportunities to win government contracts abroad and overcome related challenges. The OECD SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2020 – Assessing the implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe is addressed to European policymakers and their external partners and examines how better SME-support policies can be designed and delivered.

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      Mesures non tarifaires

      Que sont les mesures non tarifaires ? Les mesures non tarifaires sont des mesures politiques qui peuvent potentiellement affecter les biens échangés en modifiant leurs quantités, leurs prix ou les deux. Les mesures non tarifaires visent notamment à protéger la santé publique ou l'environnement et peuvent impliquer des coûts d'information, de mise en conformité et de procédure. Ces mesures peuvent s'appliquer à la fois aux importations et aux exportations et sont divisées en 16 catégories. La Conférence des Nations unies sur le commerce et le développement (CNUCED) fournit une liste complète des mesures non tarifaires et de leurs définitions. Quels sont les différents types de mesures non tarifaires ? Le tableau ci-dessous présente les grandes catégories de mesures non tarifaires que vous pouvez rencontrer. Les deux premières catégories, A et B, s'appliquent aux importateurs, ou acheteurs, et la catégorie P, au bas du tableau, s'applique uniquement aux exportateurs, ou vendeurs. Il est important de noter que certaines de ces mesures, telles que les quotas et les mesures d'investissement liées au commerce, sont interdites par les règles de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC), sauf dans des circonstances spécifiques. Pour plus de détails, veuillez consulter l'Accord général sur les tarifs douaniers et le commerce (GATT) de l'OMC. Mesures techniques sur les importations A Mesures sanitaires et phytosanitaires (SPS) : Il s'agit de mesures visant à restreindre les substances, à garantir la sécurité alimentaire et à empêcher la propagation de maladies ou d'organismes nuisibles. (Voir le guide sur les mesures SPS) B Obstacles techniques au commerce : ils concernent les exigences en matière de produits, de techniques ou de qualité. Elles comprennent également les mesures relatives à l'étiquetage et à l'emballage. (Voir le guide sur les OTC) C Inspection avant expédition et autres formalités douanières : Elles impliquent d'autres mesures techniques. Mesures non techniques sur les importations D Mesures contingentes : Elles comprennent les mesures antidumping, les mesures compensatoires et les mesures de sauvegarde. E Licences et quotas : Ces mesures couvrent également les contrôles de quantité et autres restrictions connexes. F Mesures de contrôle des prix : Elles affectent les prix des biens importés. G Mesures financières : Elles limitent le paiement des importations et les conditions de paiement. H Mesures de concurrence : Elles accordent des privilèges à un ou plusieurs opérateurs économiques. I Mesures d'investissement liées au commerce : Elles imposent un contenu local ou des conditions d'exportation aux investissements. J Restrictions de distribution : Elles réglementent la distribution interne des produits importés. K Restrictions sur les services après-vente : Elles restreignent, par exemple, la fourniture de services accessoires. L Subventions et autres formes de soutien : Il s'agit de transferts financiers aux entreprises, aux individus ou aux ménages. M Restrictions sur les marchés publics : Ces restrictions empêchent les soumissionnaires de vendre des produits à un gouvernement étranger. N Propriété intellectuelle : Il s'agit de restrictions ou de règles liées aux droits de propriété intellectuelle. O Règles d'origine : Il s'agit de critères relatifs à l'origine des produits ou de leurs intrants, qui peuvent avoir une incidence sur la question de savoir si ces produits sont soumis à des restrictions, à des droits ou à d'autres mesures. P Mesures liées à l'exportation : comprennent les quotas d'exportation et autres interdictions d'exportation. Comment puis-je commencer à identifier les mesures non tarifaires ? Les chambres de commerce, les associations industrielles et les agences commerciales peuvent fournir des portails en ligne avec des listes de mesures non tarifaires applicables à vos produits. Les entreprises peuvent également identifier les restrictions commerciales sur les marchés qu'elles ciblent en utilisant quatre outils en ligne disponibles, décrits ci-dessous : Market Access Map : Cette base de données contient des réglementations non tarifaires spécifiques qui s'appliquent aux exportations ou aux importations de produits, ainsi qu'un suivi des mesures commerciales temporaires mises en place en réponse à la directive COVID-19. Système d'information sur l'analyse commerciale (TRAINS) : La base de données TRAINS fournit une liste exhaustive des mesures non tarifaires disponibles pour plus de 160 pays, couvrant plus des quatre cinquièmes du commerce mondial. Global Trade Helpdesk : Le Global Trade Helpdesk fournit une vue d'ensemble des mesures non tarifaires provenant de la Market Access Map et de TRAINS, ainsi que d'autres informations sur les règles d'origine, les statistiques commerciales et les procédures connexes pour les importateurs ou les exportateurs ciblant les marchés étrangers. Solution intégrée pour le commerce mondial (WITS) : Le WITS présente des profils de pays sur les mesures non tarifaires par type. Liens vers des informations complémentaires La Conférence des Nations Unies sur le commerce et le développement (CNUCED) fournit une liste complète des mesures non tarifaires et de leurs définitions Classification internationale des mesures non tarifaires - édition 2019 (unctad.org) Accord général sur les tarifs douaniers et le commerce (GATT) de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) Textes juridiques de l'OMC - Accord de Marrakech Guide Trade4MSMEs Mesures sanitaires et phytosanitaires Guide Trade4MSMEs Obstacles techniques au commerce Centre du commerce international ITC Market Access Map CNUCED TRAINS Centre du commerce international ITC Global Trade Helpdesk Système mondial intégré de commerce WITS

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      Mesures sanitaires et phytosanitaires et obstacles techniques au commerce

      What are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures?   SPS measures consist of laws, decrees, regulations, requirements, and procedures that countries adopt to protect human, animal, or plant life and health against certain risks. These measures generally aim to promote food safety and protect against risks stemming from cross-border spread of contaminants, diseases, and pests affecting animals and plants. Examples of SPS measures include: requirements for products to come from disease-free areas; specific treatment or processing of products; thresholds for pesticide residues; and permitted use of certain additives in food. However, these measures can also sometimes act as trade restrictions, especially for smaller firms with fewer compliance resources, and it is important that policymakers ensure that all firms can easily comply. For more information, see Understanding the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.    What are the types of SPS measures that can apply to imports?    SPS measures can be said to include six broad categories:  prohibitions or restrictions of imports for sanitary and phytosanitary reasons;  tolerance limits for residues and restricted use of substances;  labelling, marking, and packaging requirements directly related to food safety;  hygienic requirements related to sanitary and phytosanitary conditions;  treatment for elimination of plant and animal pests and disease-causing organisms in the final product or prohibition of treatment; and  other requirements relating to production or post-production processes.  In addition, SPS measures cover procedures to verify that products meet SPS requirements. For a more comprehensive list of SPS measures, see the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) International Classification of Non-Tariff Measures.   What are technical barriers to trade (TBT)?    TBT measures include product-related technical regulations and standards, as well as procedures to assess compliance with the requirements set out in these regulations and standards. While conformity with standards is voluntary, technical regulations are mandatory. TBT measures are used by a country for safety reasons, to protect the environment, to enhance national security, or to provide information to consumers, among other considerations. For more information, see the WTO Agreement Series on Technical Barriers to Trade.   What are examples of TBT measures?   TBT measures can take the form of:  testing and certification requirements to ensure product quality, safety, or performance;  labelling, marking, and packaging requirements;  production or post-production requirements;  product identity requirements; and  product quality, safety, or performance requirements.     Some examples of TBT measures include packaging or labelling requirements, such as health warnings on tobacco products; regulations on product characteristics, such as energy performance requirements for electrical appliances; or conformity assessment procedures, such as testing procedures for motor vehicle safety requirements. For more information on what constitutes a TBT, see the WTO’s information on Technical regulations and standards. For a complete list of different types of TBT measures, see UNCTAD’s International Classification of Non-Tariff Measures (chapter B).   Why do SPS/TBT measures matter for MSMEs?   While SPS and TBT measures are important to protect human, animal, or plant life or health and ensure the quality of products, keeping abreast of new measures and complying with them may be challenging for small businesses. For example, the International Trade Centre (ITC) SME Competitiveness Outlook 2016 found that increases in the frequency of regulatory or procedural trade measures have been associated with larger decreases in the export value of MSMEs compared to larger firms.   What can policymakers do?   Policymakers can play a role in reducing the costs and complexity associated with SPS and TBT measures by involving MSMEs in regulatory- and standard-setting processes. Applying a Think Small First Principle (see guide on the Think-Small-First Principle) can make the voice and concerns of MSMEs heard and help tailor TBT and SPS measures to MSME needs. In addition, policymakers can enhance their transparency efforts by notifying the adopted final text of technical regulations, conformity assessment procedures, and other developments in TBT and SPS measures. The World Trade Organization (WTO)’s SPS Measures and Transparency Toolkits for TBT contains guidelines and resources for policymakers to communicate their updates on TBT and SPS. Policymakers can also raise MSME awareness of the e-ping platform which facilitates tracking of SPS and TBT measures, in particular by receiving email alerts on notifications on products and/or markets of interest as well as contact information of enquiry points.   Where can policymakers access more resources? The ePing SPS&TBT Platform: This Platform allows search of SPS/TBT information on notifications, specific trade concerns, as well as the contact information of enquiry points (and notification authorities). Of particular interest to exporters is ePing’s customized email alerts service to receive early notice of changes to regulations. Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) Good Regulatory Practices: This guide is designed for developing economy government officials tasked with developing SPS measures. Visit the report. STDF also offers funding opportunities for public sector entities, business support organizations, and non-profit NGOs for SPS-capacity building projects. Visit the STDF funding opportunities webpage.   WTO’s Agreement Series on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures: This resource is designed to improve public understanding of the WTO’s Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures by describing key features of the SPS Agreement and addressing frequently asked questions on SPS matters. Visit the WTO website. WTO’s Practical Manual for SPS National Notification Authorities and SPS National Enquiry Points: This resource provides advice and guidance for governments to facilitate the implementation of transparency provisions of the SPS Agreement and understand the framework of SPS measures in trade. Visit the WTO website.   Where can policymakers access further resources on TBT policy guidelines and frameworks? WTO’s Technical Information on Technical Barriers to Trade: This resource Underlines the principles of the WTO’s Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade and their relevance for international trade. Visit the WTO website. WTO TBT Enquiry Point Guide: This guide documents best practices on the performance of enquiry points for TBT measures and offers insights for training and capacity-building purposes. Visit the WTO website.

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      Le principe "Think Small First" ou "Small Business Lens".

      Qu'est-ce que le principe "Think Small First" ou "Small Business Lens" ? Le principe "Think Small First" ou "Small Business Lens" est une approche politique visant à prendre en compte les besoins, les points de vue et les impacts des petites entreprises lors de l'élaboration de la législation, des politiques et des réglementations. Le principe "Think Small First" ou "Small Business Lens" repose sur le fait qu'il n'y a pas de taille unique, ce qui signifie que l'élaboration des politiques doit tenir compte des effets disproportionnés des réglementations sur les entreprises de toutes tailles et, par conséquent, fournir des exigences rationalisées faciles à respecter par tous les utilisateurs finaux. Le document "Think Small First" de la Commission européenne, le "Small Business Lens" du Canada et le "SME Test" de la SME Policy Institute Association fournissent tous des ressources utiles sur ce principe, qui seront examinées plus en détail dans ce guide. Pourquoi est-il important de prendre en compte les petites entreprises dans l'élaboration des politiques ? Les petites entreprises représentent la majeure partie de l'emploi et de l'activité économique dans tous les pays du monde. Pourtant, elles sont souvent difficiles à atteindre dans le cadre des processus de consultation politique et doivent faire face à des charges et des coûts plus élevés pour se conformer aux exigences politiques. Le principe "Think Small First" ou "Small Business Lens" est une ligne directrice fondamentale que les décideurs politiques peuvent suivre pour intégrer les considérations relatives aux petites entreprises à tous les stades de la conception, de la mise en œuvre et de l'évaluation des réglementations. L'adoption d'une optique "petites entreprises" dans l'élaboration des politiques peut contribuer à réduire la complexité de la réglementation et les coûts de mise en conformité que les nouvelles politiques peuvent entraîner pour les petites entreprises. Les politiques qui simplifient les règles et les procédures administratives pour les petites entreprises leur permettent en fin de compte de se conformer plus facilement à la loi. Comment le principe "Think Small" ou "Small Business Lens" peut-il aider les petites entreprises à commercer ? De la même manière que les considérations relatives aux petites entreprises sont importantes pour les processus d'élaboration de la politique générale, le fait de penser aux petites entreprises est primordial pour la conception, la négociation et la mise en œuvre de la politique commerciale. Bien que les petites entreprises soient les principaux moteurs de l'emploi et de l'activité économique, elles ne participent pas au commerce international sur un pied d'égalité avec les grandes entreprises. L'application du principe "Think Small" peut permettre aux politiques et accords commerciaux aux niveaux national, bilatéral, régional et multilatéral d'inclure les petites entreprises. En retour, cela joue un rôle dans l'élaboration d'exigences et de dispositions commerciales permettant aux petites entreprises de s'engager dans le commerce transfrontalier en faisant face à des coûts de mise en conformité moindres et en ayant un meilleur accès au soutien commercial, au financement et à l'information nécessaires pour faire des affaires au niveau international. La Federation of Small Business Trading Forward fournit de plus amples informations sur la manière dont les décideurs politiques peuvent commencer à appliquer le principe "Think Small First" pour aider les petites entreprises à commercer. Où les décideurs politiques peuvent-ils trouver d'autres ressources sur les cadres politiques, les lignes directrices et les outils ? L'Index des politiques en faveur des PME de l'OCDE : L'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) utilise un indice de politique des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) pour guider les pays dans la définition d'objectifs pour le développement de politiques affectant les petites entreprises. Visitez le site web de l'OCDE. Où les décideurs politiques peuvent-ils trouver des bonnes pratiques et des exemples nationaux ? Note d'orientation de l'Australie sur les meilleures pratiques en matière de consultation : Le gouvernement australien a élaboré des lignes directrices à l'intention des régulateurs afin qu'ils entreprennent des processus de consultation politique inclusifs et qu'ils prennent en compte les questions pratiques lorsqu'ils impliquent des petites entreprises. Visitez le site web du gouvernement australien. Liste de contrôle de l'optique des petites entreprises du Canada : Le gouvernement du Canada a formulé neuf points de la liste de contrôle à l'intention des régulateurs afin qu'ils incluent les petites entreprises dans les processus d'élaboration des politiques et qu'ils tiennent compte de leurs besoins et de leurs incidences potentielles lorsqu'ils répondent aux exigences réglementaires. Visitez le site web du gouvernement du Canada. Consultation par la Commission européenne des parties prenantes dans l'élaboration des politiques affectant les petites entreprises : La Commission européenne a évalué les méthodes et les procédures de consultation politique afin d'identifier comment les petites entreprises peuvent être mieux impliquées dans l'élaboration des politiques aux niveaux national et régional. Visitez le site de la Commission européenne

  5. Commerce des services et facilitation de l'investissement

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      Commerce des services - Vue d'ensemble

      Modes of services supply   The World Trade Organization’s (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) distinguishes between four modes of services supply. This is a way of characterizing and sorting services transactions by the territorial presence of suppliers and consumers and it is a helpful framework for thinking about how a service, which is usually intangible, can be traded across borders. Learn more at the WTO website. Cross-border supply (Mode 1): This occurs when businesses from one territory sell services to customers located in another territory. For example, an architect in country A sends building plans to a developer in country B. Consumption abroad (Mode 2): This refers to domestic businesses selling services to foreign customers present in their market. Examples are tourism or medical services provided to foreign visitors. Commercial presence (Mode 3): This consists of services sold by foreign companies to domestic customers through local affiliates, subsidiaries, or representative offices established in the customers’ market. An example is a foreign hotel group selling vacation packages to domestic residents. Movement of natural persons (Mode 4): This characterizes services provided by a services professional or an employee of a services firm who is temporarily present in the territory of the customers. For example, an IT specialist that travels abroad to develop a new piece of software for a local client. Why does services trade matter for small businesses trying to reach new markets?    Since 2011, trade in services has been expanding at a faster pace than trade in goods. The WTO’s World Trade Report 2019 found that commercial services trade grew 5.4% each year on average between 2005 and 2017, totalling USD 13.3 trillion in 2017. Technological progress and greater access to the internet have enabled services businesses to reach customers without needing to be in physical proximity with them, thus reducing the cost of trading services. Trade in services has also led to opportunities for small businesses to become early exporters. WTO findings have shown that services-based small businesses are on average two years younger than small firms in manufacturing sectors when they start exporting. However, the small firms in services sectors are overall less internationalized than their peers in manufacturing activities, suggesting areas for policy improvement.   Policy considerations on services trade   Trade in services remains subject to higher barriers than trade in goods, although most economies have opened up their services sector over the past few decades. Indeed, trade costs in services are almost double those in goods. These costs have remained higher despite the lowering of policy barriers, the spread of digital technologies and investment in infrastructure. There have been some improvements, however, with these costs decreasing by 9 percent between 2000 and 2017.   This situation has implications for countries worldwide, as barriers in services trade prevent a more efficient allocation of resources, the achievement of greater economies of scale, and an increase in the variety of services on offer, ultimately affecting the productivity of firms economy wide. Enhanced international cooperation may help reduce frictions in services trade and untap the potential for small businesses to trade services.    For more on this topic, see the WTO’s World Trade Report 2019.   Where can policymakers access other resources on policy frameworks, guidelines, and tools? ITC Business Survey on Obstacle to Services Trade: The International Trade Centre (ITC) conducts surveys that can help countries identify services trade barriers. Visit the ITC survey. OECD Services Trade Restrictiveness Index Regulatory Database: This resource from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) contains information on trade restrictions and behind-the-border regulations in multiple services sectors, including computer services, construction services, and telecommunications services, among others. Visit the OECD database. UNCTAD Trade Policy Frameworks for Developing Countries: The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) offers a manual of best practices that can provide guidance to key actors involved in developing national trade policy frameworks. Visit the UNCTAD website. World Bank Report, At Your Service? The Promise of Services-Led Development: This resource presents the findings of World Bank experts on the prospects for services-led development strategies that can help low- and middle-income countries catch up with high-income countries while expanding job opportunities through services-led trade and economic activity. Visit the World Bank website. WTO Guide to reading the GATS schedules of specific commitments and the list of Article II (MFN) exemptions: This resource includes a full list of WTO Members’ schedules and MFN exemption lists on services trade under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Visit the WTO website. WTO Trade Monitoring Database (TMDB): This database monitors services trade measures that WTO Members have been introducing since October 2015. Visit the TMDB. WTO-World Bank I-TIP Services Database: This database provides information on WTO Members’ commitments under the GATS, services commitments in regional trade agreements (RTAs), applied measures in services, and services trade statistics. Visit the I-TIP. WTO World Trade Report 2019: This edition of the WTO’s flagship report examines market and regulatory factors shaping the current and future landscape of services trade. Visit the World Trade Report.

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      Facilitation de l'investissement

      The relationship between trade and investment in the global economy is rapidly evolving as a result of technological developments, economic liberalization, and new ways of organizing production and distribution. Although trade and investment have always been interlinked, three related developments in the global economy — the spread of global value chains (GVCs), the growth of services, and the rise of digital trade or ‘e-commerce’ — are amplifying these dynamic links and making it more important for policymakers to respond in complementary and coherent ways. The Joint Statement Initiative (JSI) on Investment Facilitation for Development (IFD) at the WTO   Launched in December 2017 by a group of developing and least-developed WTO Members as ‘structured discussions’ under a ‘joint initiative’, negotiations are currently ongoing at the WTO among more than 110 participating Members (over 2/3 of the WTO Membership), with the objective to develop a multilateral Agreement on Investment Facilitation for Development. Since April 2021, the discussions advance on the basis of a single negotiating text (the so-called ‘Easter Text’). As stated in the latest Joint Statement on IFD endorsed by over 110 WTO Members in December 2021, the signatories aim at concluding the text-based negotiations on an IFD Agreement by the end of 2022. What is investment facilitation at the WTO?   The negotiations on investment facilitation at the WTO are inspired by the success of the WTO’s Trade Facilitation Agreement – and the recognition that in today’s integrated global economy, expanding investment flows, like trade flows, depends on simplifying, speeding up and coordinating processes, not just liberalizing policies. Indeed, in many cases the bottlenecks, inefficiencies, and uncertainties that investment facilitation seeks to address arise from unnecessary red tape, bureaucratic overlap, or out-of-date processes which serve no clear policy purpose but can be costly for everyone concerned.   Although there is no internationally agreed definition of ‘Investment facilitation’, it typically involves whole-of-government efforts to develop enabling regulatory and administrative frameworks for supporting both new and existing investors to comply with investment-related policy requirements. Some examples of investment facilitation mechanisms include public-private dialogue, investment aftercare services, and good governance laws.   In the framework of the WTO negotiations on IFD, facilitating investment is understood as creating a more transparent, efficient, investment-friendly business climate – by making it easier for domestic and foreign investors to invest, to conduct their day-to-day business, and to expand their existing investments, and for host and home governments to work cooperatively and in mutually beneficial ways to facilitate not only more, but also more sustainable investment. The focus is not on changing national investment policies, but on implementing and administering those policies more clearly, efficiently, predictably, and fairly, notably through increasing transparency of governments’ investment measures, streamlining administrative procedures, and enhancing cooperation among relevant agencies. However, it is clearly distinct from investment ‘liberalization’ (market access), investment ‘protection’ and Investor-State Dispute Settlement, all of which are explicitly excluded from the scope of the future WTO IFD Agreement.   It is to be noted that, as there is no internationally agreed definition of this concept, other International Organizations (IOs) working in the field of investment facilitation, such as OECD or UNCTAD may approach this concept in a slightly different way. However, all approaches have in common their focus on making it easier for investors to establish or expand their investments, as well as to conduct their day-to-day business in host countries.   Why does investment facilitation matter – and why does it matter particularly for MSMEs?   MSMEs often face many ground-level obstacles and impediments when attempting to invest abroad. Notably, the lack of easily accessible information on investment measures and the practical steps to invest in a given country/territory; language barriers; the lack of predictability of the regulatory environment; as well as the opacity and complexity of administrative procedures may often be overly burdensome and act as a deterrent in particular for MSMEs.  Indeed, unlike big firms, MSMEs often lack the capacity and/or the financial means to hire expert consultancy services to find out the information on the requirements and procedures in order to invest in a particular country/territory.   In this context, investment facilitation measures can benefit in particular MSMEs when investing abroad, through promoting greater transparency of regulations (including notably through online publication), streamlining and speeding up administrative procedures, building constructive relationships between investors and relevant authorities, and establishing amicable consultation/mediation mechanisms to prevent investment disputes from escalating.   As well, investment facilitation measures can also enable MSMEs to link up with foreign investors, notably in developing countries, through different channels. Indeed, enhancing the visibility of domestic firms, including MSMEs, is part of investment facilitation, notably through measures encouraging the establishment domestic supplier databases. Global policy dialogues framed within the Group of Twenty’s (G20) Guiding Principles for Global Investment Policymaking stress that investment facilitation provides avenues for small business to participate and move up in supply chains by leveraging on linkages to multinational companies.   WTO Members’ awareness of the importance of investment facilitation for MSMEs is well reflected in the draft negotiating document for an IFD Agreement, through provisions encouraging Members to review their investment measures with the view to make their regime more effective in addressing the specific needs of MSMEs, or to take into account, when preparing major investment measures, the potential impact of those measures on MSMEs. Actually, enhancing investment in as well as by MSMEs is one of the objectives of the future Agreement.   How can policymakers facilitate investment in, and by, MSMEs?   Several measures can be adopted to facilitate investment, particularly for MSMEs, at the national and international level. For instance, countries negotiate trade and investment agreements that may include provisions aiming at facilitating conditions for small businesses to access to or benefit from investment opportunities (see chapter 5 of WTO’s MSME-Related Language in Regional Trade Agreements). At the national level, countries seeking to facilitate investment may develop policies, institutions and financial facilities that support small businesses to engage in international trade and investment by increasing their access to capital, technology, and business networks.   More specifically, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) developed a Global Action Menu for Investment Facilitation, which provides 10 ‘action lines’ with a series of options for investment policymakers and government agencies for national and international policy measures on investment facilitation.   As well, to support the ongoing negotiations on an IFD Agreement in the WTO and enable negotiators and policymakers notably from developing and least-developed countries to better engage in them, the International Trade Centre (ITC), jointly with the German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS), has launched an ‘Investment Facilitation for Development (IF4D) project’. In this context, the ITC/IDOS have developed a toolkit for policymakers provides guidelines for developing investment facilitation regulations aimed at attaining development objectives, such as small business growth and competitiveness. This toolkit provides principles, action lines and examples for designing investment facilitation measures, and includes considerations for such measures to account in particular for small business needs. Some examples of investment facilitation policy measures in support of small business growth and development include: digital investment portals with lists of investor-ready small businesses; periodic impact assessments of the investment facilitation framework on small businesses; certification programs for developing small business linkages to customers, larger businesses and multinationals (see guide on voluntary sustainability standards); online platforms that streamline regulatory compliance for small businesses. For more information, see ITC/IDOS’s Policymaker Toolkit on Investment Facilitation for Development.   A general guidance is that  investment policies, regulations and procedures should be transparent, pragmatic, and friendly for small businesses to meet all necessary policy requirements for seizing investment opportunities and for developing business linkages to broader investment processes. By doing so, small businesses grow and are more able to contribute to the economy, increasing their productive and financial capacities to engage more in international trade and investment   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? WTO’s Investment Facilitation for Development Portal: The World Trade Organization (WTO) has a webpage dedicated to the IFD negotiations which provides information regarding the negotiations, including a factsheet and joint statements on IFD. Visit the WTO’s IFD webpage. ITC/IDOS Investment Facilitation for Development Policy Toolkit for Policymakers: ITC and DIE developed a policy toolkit for policymakers to support the WTO negotiations on IFD, as well as unilateral, bilateral and regional efforts to facilitate sustainable investment flows. The toolkit notably contains an inventory of measures to facilitate the flow of sustainable FDI. Visit the ITC/DIE’s Policy Toolkit for Policymakers. UNCTAD’s Investment Facilitation and Promotion: The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) supports countries to design investment facilitation regulations and institutions through a range of resources, including investment guides, advisory guidelines and policy frameworks. Visit this UNCTAD website. UNCTAD’s Investment Policy Hub: UNCTAD integrates policy frameworks, reviews and monitoring system on investment measures that can help to identify resources, trends and developments in investment facilitation. Visit the Hub. World Bank’s Investment Policy and Promotion: The World Bank offers a knowledge bank with strategies, examples and policy evidence on measures related to investment facilitation. Visit this World Bank website.   Where can policymakers access good practices and national examples? IDB-ITC-DIE’s What Foreign Investors Want: The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), International Trade Centre (ITC), and the German Development Institute (DIE) surveyed a number of active foreign investors in Latin America and the Caribbean and identified a key set of valuable investment facilitation measures for advancing development objectives under multilateral cooperation and national coordination. Visit this IDB-ITC-DIE report. OECD’s Investment Promotion and Facilitation Strategies: The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) provides an inventory of investment promotion and facilitation activities in the Middle East and North Africa region, which policymakers can use for benchmarking purposes. Visit this OECD website. OECD-UNIDO’s Integrating Southeast Asian SMEs in Global Value Chains: The OECD and the United Nations Industrial Organization (UNIDO) provide evidence on investment facilitation measures that can enable small businesses to develop business linkages to global supply chains. Visit this OECD-UNIDO report. UNCTAD’s World Investment Reports: UNCTAD publishes each year a World Investment Report which provides, among other, information on latest investment facilitation measures adopted. Visit UNCTAD’s 2022 World Investment Report. UNCTAD’s Investment Policy Monitor: UNCTAD provides the international investment community with country-specific, up-to-date information about the latest developments in foreign investment policies, notably on investment facilitation. Visit UNCTAD’s Investment Policy Monitor. UNCTAD’s Global Enterprise Registration (GER.co): UNCTAD lists and rates governments’ digital information portals and Single Windows, providing the weblinks to each of them. Visit the GER.co.

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      Paiements électroniques transfrontaliers

      Qu'est-ce que les paiements électroniques ? Les paiements électroniques (e-paiements) sont des transactions numériques que les utilisateurs effectuent pour payer des biens et des services sur l'internet. Pour effectuer des paiements électroniques, les entreprises et les particuliers utilisent diverses méthodes de paiement électronique qui vont des paiements par débit et par carte aux transferts bancaires, en passant par le paiement mobile et les transactions par chambre de compensation automatisée (ACH). Les paiements électroniques sont essentiellement des opérations financières effectuées à l'aide d'appareils électroniques, tels que des ordinateurs, des smartphones ou des tablettes. Pour plus d'informations sur les modèles de paiement électronique et les types de transactions, voir le document Electronic Payment Services and E-Commerce de la Chambre de commerce internationale (CCI) et la note fintech 19/91 du Fonds monétaire international (FMI) intitulée "The Rise of Digital Money" (L'essor de l'argent numérique). Pourquoi les paiements électroniques sont-ils importants pour le commerce des MPME ? Les développements technologiques de ces dernières années ont permis aux institutions financières et non financières de moderniser les méthodes de paiement qu'elles proposent aux utilisateurs. Des études menées par la Banque des règlements internationaux (BRI) et le Fonds monétaire international ont mis en évidence la croissance rapide des technologies numériques par rapport aux instruments traditionnels. Les technologies numériques offrant des instruments de paiement plus efficaces et moins coûteux, les petites entreprises peuvent tirer profit des options de paiement électronique pour réduire l'incertitude et les coûts, en particulier pour les transactions commerciales internationales. Les autres avantages des paiements électroniques pour les MPME en matière de commerce vont de l'accélération des activités de paiement transfrontalier à la douane à la réduction des risques de fraude et des lourdes dépenses administratives. Pour plus d'informations sur les paiements électroniques et les transactions en ligne, voir les articles et documents suivants : L'article de la BRI sur les tendances des paiements numériques, "Payments go (even more) digital" ; Le document de travail du FMI WP/21/177 "Is Mobile Money Part of Money ? Understanding the Trends and Measurement" ; Le guide de mise en œuvre de la facilitation des échanges de la Commission économique des Nations unies pour l'Europe (CEE-ONU) sur les paiements électroniques ; et Le document de l'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) intitulé "Trade finance for SMEs in the digital era" (Financement du commerce pour les PME à l'ère numérique). Quels défis les MPME rencontrent-elles dans l'utilisation des paiements électroniques ? Alors que les technologies numériques ont contribué à l'expansion rapide des services financiers, les marchés des paiements électroniques sont confrontés à des défis réglementaires qui empêchent les petites entreprises d'avoir un meilleur accès aux options de paiement transfrontalier pour le commerce. Une étude récente de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) a montré que seul un quart des membres de l'OMC ont entièrement libéralisé les paiements transfrontaliers dans le cadre des engagements de l'Accord général sur le commerce des services (AGCS). Le Forum économique mondial (WEF) et la Chambre de commerce internationale (ICC) ont identifié quatre domaines clés dans lesquels les décideurs politiques pourraient s'engager pour réduire les frictions sur les marchés des paiements électroniques : (a) l'accès au marché et les barrières au traitement national ; (b) les normes techniques ; (c) la sécurité et la confiance ; et (d) la coordination et la supervision des politiques. Pour plus d'informations, voir la page Connecting Digital Economies du WEF et son livre blanc Addressing E-Payment Challenges in Global E-Commerce, ainsi que la note de synthèse d'ICC sur les services de paiement électronique et le commerce électronique. Où puis-je trouver des ressources sur les cadres et les recommandations politiques ? Recommandations politiques pour les paiements transfrontaliers : Le WEF souligne les domaines clés dans lesquels les décideurs politiques peuvent s'engager et coopérer pour réduire la complexité des marchés des paiements électroniques. Visitez le site Connecting Digital Economies : Recommandations politiques pour les paiements transfrontaliers. Portée des engagements existants en matière de services de paiement électronique : Le WEF décrit l'état actuel des engagements multilatéraux et des négociations plurilatérales sur les aspects commerciaux des services de paiement électronique et du commerce électronique. Lire le document du WEF. Orientation de la politique des consommateurs en matière de paiements mobiles et en ligne : L'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) propose des orientations que les décideurs politiques peuvent utiliser pour aborder les questions de protection des consommateurs lors de l'élaboration de politiques ciblant les marchés des paiements mobiles et en ligne. Lire le guide de l'OCDE. Cadre analytique sur les réglementations relatives aux fintechs et aux paiements : Le Fonds monétaire international (FMI) documente les expériences internationales récentes en matière de modernisation des cadres juridiques et réglementaires pour les services de paiement. Lien vers le cadre du FMI. Où puis-je trouver des bonnes pratiques et des exemples nationaux ? Guide des paiements électroniques pour les pays en développement : Le Centre du commerce international (CCI) a élaboré un guide sur les réformes juridiques et réglementaires et les meilleures pratiques que les décideurs politiques peuvent utiliser pour aborder les questions de politique de paiement électronique dans les pays en développement. Consultez le guide de l'ITC. Initiatives d'acceptation des paiements électroniques : La Banque mondiale a réalisé une analyse documentaire et des exemples nationaux pour aider les décideurs politiques à concevoir des mesures d'incitation visant à favoriser l'acceptation des paiements électroniques. Accéder à l'étude de la Banque mondiale.

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      Commerce transfrontalier sans papier

      What is cross-border paperless trade?   Paperless trade refers to the digitalization of information flows required to support goods and services crossing borders. By moving away from paper and opting for digital systems, governments and other stakeholders can speed up and facilitate trade (see guide on Trade Facilitation). Paperless trade can also yield significant environmental benefits by cutting out printing, dispatching, processing, exchanging, and the eventual discarding of vast quantities of paper documents. Paperless trade systems can be B2B, B2G or G2G and have various focuses (e.g. electronic customs declarations, electronic port management systems, electronic single windows).   Why is cross-border paperless trade important for MSMEs?   Paperless trade could significantly reduce trade costs and add up to major savings for traders, especially MSMEs. According to a study conducted by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and Coriolis Technology, digitizing transferable documents could boost MSME trade by 25% and lead to a 35% improvement in business efficiency. Paperless trade can reduce complexity by eliminating the need for copies of the same document, as well as making electronic and immediate transmission of those same documents possible. All of this can reduce the time and effort required, thereby assisting all traders, especially MSMEs, with managing trade-related procedures, such as trade finance requests and logistics operations.   What legal and technical aspects need to be considered when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems?   Legal issues that policy makers should consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include: Legal recognition of electronic transactions and documents: adopting a legal framework that recognizes electronic transactions and documents as equivalent to those based on paper is. The UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records (MLETR) provides useful international guidance in this respect. Trust services: for paperless trade systems to be interoperable, they need to rely on mechanisms guaranteeing an international alignment on what constitutes a valid trust service across borders. See the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures (MLES) for guidance on this issue. Data governance: When documents and information are exchanged between users using electronic systems or between electronic systems, the system must ensure confidentiality (i.e. information is private to only designated parties of the communications) and data integrity (i.e. the accuracy and consistency of data are maintained and assured over their entire life cycle). Liability and dispute management: trading parties and other concerned entities may suffer losses from the incorrect transmission or improper reuse of information and may seek compensation for those losses. Guaranteeing access to civil remedies for such losses and dispute settlement opportunities can help to enhance trust in paperless trade systems, and thereby support their adoption.   In addition to the legal framework, technical issues to consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include digital identity, electronic payments, data models and semantics, communication protocols, connectivity and data security. A list of standards for cross-border paperless trade that can be called upon when putting in place such systems can be found in the joint ICC-WTO Standards Toolkit for Cross-border Paperless Trade.   Detailed guidance on these various legal and technical issues is provided in the Cross-border Paperless Trade Toolkit developed by the WTO in collaboration with the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and UNCITRAL, as well as in the legal and technical readiness assessment guides and checklists developed by UNESCAP.   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? ICC’s Digital Standards Initiative (DSI): The International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) has developed a digital standards initiative. The DSI website includes a page for policymakerswith links to information related to adoption, economic analyses on the benefits of digitalization, and legislation related to the adoption of the MLETR. ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT’s Making the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement Work for SMEs: The International Trade Centre (ITC), the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and the United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade and Transport in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) provide guidance for policymakers to mainstream paperless measures and other trade facilitation components in strategies aimed at developing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Visit this ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT repor WTO-UNESCAP-UNCITRAL Cross-Border Paperless Trade Toolkit: The World Trade Organization (WTO), in collaboration with UNESCAP and UNCITRAL, developed a toolkit with technical and legal tools that can be called upon to adopt cross-border paperless trade systems. UN/CEFACT’s While Paper on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) has a policy document with frameworks, case studies and resources that can guide policymakers to align trade rules with trends in paperless trade. Visit this UN/CEFACT report. UNECE-UN/CEFACT’s Guides on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) have a number of papers and guides on paperless trade, including a 2018 white paper on paperless trade, a roadmap towards paperless trade, and trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation. UNESCAP’s Legal Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP has developed legal readiness assessment guides that countries can use to identify legal issue areas that are relevant to cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website. UNESCAP’s Technical Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP offers technical readiness assessment guides that countries can use to address technical issues on implementing electronic trade systems, paperless environment and actions needed for facilitating cross-border paperless trade data exchange. Visit this UNESCAP website. WCO’s Guide on Dematerialization & Paperless Processing: The World Customs Organization (WTO) has developed guidelines for customs authorities to support the use of electronic means for managing trade-related documents and reduce the hard copy requirements for such documents. Visit this WCO guide.   Where can policymakers access good practices and national examples? Single Window for Foreign Trade in Colombia: A Case Study on Trade Transactions: The International Trade Centre (ITC) has documented Colombia’s experience in establishing a national single window for foreign trade which has enable business to conduct paperless transaction with the support of information and communication technologies. Visit this ITC website. UNECE’s Regional Report on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation: The United Nations Commission for Europe (UNECE) provides an example of regional policy reviews on best practices and opportunities for cooperation in adopting paperless trade measures and other trade facilitation interventions. Visit this UNECE report. UNESCAP’s Readiness Assessments for Cross-Border Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific offers policy toolkits for assessing legal and technical readiness for cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website.

  6. Facilitation des échanges et accès aux marchés

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      Facilitation des échanges

      Qu'est-ce que l'accord sur la facilitation des échanges ? L'Accord sur la facilitation des échanges (AFE) de l'OMC est né de la Conférence ministérielle de Bali en 2013 et après près de dix ans de négociations ultérieures, reconnaissant la nécessité d'améliorer les processus commerciaux. Ratifié au début de l'année 2017, le TFA est une étape importante pour faciliter les procédures aux frontières. Des données récentes issues d'une analyse ex post entreprise par la Commission économique et sociale des Nations unies pour l'Asie de l'Est et le Pacifique (CESAP) suggèrent que la mise en œuvre de l'AFC de l'OMC à ce jour (car il s'agit d'un processus progressif dans la plupart des économies en développement) a contribué à réduire les coûts commerciaux de 1 à 4 % en moyenne. Pourquoi le TFA est-il important pour les MPME ? Bien que les changements proposés par le TFA profitent à tous les commerçants, les petits commerçants, qui disposent de moins de ressources, ont été identifiés comme en bénéficiant davantage. La section I de l'accord énumère les différents domaines et processus qui devraient être alignés et modernisés (voir le guide sur le commerce transfrontalier sans papier), les changements se concentrant principalement sur deux domaines, la communication et les procédures frontalières. L'ITC a mis en évidence certains articles de l'Accord général sur les tarifs douaniers et le commerce comme étant particulièrement pertinents pour le commerce des MPME. Il s'agit notamment des articles sur la diffusion des informations relatives aux procédures commerciales auprès des PME ; les opérateurs autorisés et les critères qui ne restreignent pas la participation des PME (voir "Getting Down to Business" ou le guide sur les opérateurs économiques autorisés) ; le soutien des PME aux guichets uniques (voir le guide sur les guichets uniques et les portails nationaux) ; la réduction des droits et des frais pour les PME et les expéditions accélérées ; et les comités nationaux sur la facilitation des échanges et les PME (voir le guide sur les comités nationaux sur la facilitation des échanges). Pour plus de détails, voir Faire fonctionner l'accord de l'OMC sur la facilitation des échanges pour les PME. Où les décideurs politiques peuvent-ils trouver davantage de ressources ? Il existe de nombreuses ressources pour les décideurs politiques concernant la mise en œuvre de l'accord commercial global. En voici quelques-unes. D'autres sont disponibles dans la bibliothèque de ressources pour les décideurs politiques. Le CCI fournit non seulement des informations sur la recherche et le renforcement des capacités sur sa page web consacrée au programme de facilitation des échanges, mais il propose également un cours d'apprentissage en ligne pour les décideurs sur l'accord de l'OMC sur la facilitation des échanges et un manuel de formation sur les PME et l'accord de l'OMC sur la facilitation des échanges. La page de l'OCDE sur la facilitation des échanges contient des liens utiles vers des recherches, des explications vidéo et des outils contenant des informations sur la mise en œuvre de l'accord et les défis connexes. Les ressources de l'Organisation mondiale des douanes (OMD) sur la facilitation des échanges comprennent un guide sur les comités nationaux de facilitation des échanges et des fiches d'information sur des sujets spécifiques tels que les décisions anticipées, les recours en matière douanière, le guichet unique, la gestion des risques/le contrôle après dédouanement et la procédure simplifiée/les personnes autorisées, qui sont tous accessibles ici. L'OMD a également produit de nombreux guides et manuels relatifs à la facilitation des échanges, disponibles via les outils de l'OMD. Les ressources de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) comprennent la page web sur la facilitation des échanges, qui contient des informations sur l'accord lui-même ainsi que des liens vers des vidéos et des publications. D'autres ressources sont disponibles sur cette page : Le site web dédié au Mécanisme pour la facilitation des échanges qui comprend des informations sur l'accord lui-même, des ressources et des études de cas pour chaque disposition du TFA, de nombreuses ressources générales telles que la page web du Mécanisme pour la facilitation des échanges de l'OMC, ainsi que des liens vers des cours d'apprentissage en ligne pour les décideurs politiques fournis par l'OMC, la BID, le CCI, l'UNESCAP et d'autres organismes. La base de données sur les accords de facilitation des échanges contient des graphiques sur l'état d'avancement de l'AGT et l'état de la mise en œuvre des engagements par les membres de l'OMC. Où les décideurs peuvent-ils trouver des bonnes pratiques ou des exemples nationaux ? Le guide du CCI, de la CEE-ONU et de la CNUCED intitulé "Getting Down to Business, Making the Most of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement" contient des informations sur les meilleures pratiques et d'autres informations utiles sur la mise en œuvre. Le simulateur d'indicateurs de facilitation des échanges de l'OCDE et l'outil "comparez votre pays" fournissent aux gouvernements une base pour hiérarchiser les actions de facilitation des échanges et pour identifier les forces et les faiblesses dans ce domaine. La CNUCED propose également un outil de suivi des réformes en matière de facilitation des échanges.

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      Opérateurs économiques agréés

      What are authorized economic operators (AEOs)?   AEOs are businesses and other entities certified by customs authorities to trade goods across borders under international supply chain security standards. An AEO status can provide increased confidence for customs authorities, trade partners, and customers. This status also certifies goods to obtain priority clearance with customs and be subject to fewer physical and documentation checks. Products shipped by companies with AEO status are also given priority as AEO consignments if they are selected for controls at the border. For additional information on AEOs, national examples and implementation guidance, see the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s (UNECE) page on Authorized Economic Operator (AEO).   Why does an AEO status matter for trade?    With international trade increasing over the years, cross-border movement of goods has become a complex process for customs authorities to manage. There are increased security standards in many economies, along with an increase of small, low-value shipments. In response, international guidelines on AEO programs were adopted to streamline clearance processes conducted by customs and border authorities and reduce delivery times in cross-border trade transactions. The World Customs Organization (WCO) published an AEO Compendium in 2020 to provide policymakers with an overview of existing AEO programs around the world and a list of the frameworks that underpin  AEO-related standards.    How can AEO status benefit MSMEs and what are the potential challenges?    MSMEs can apply for AEO status at the customs authorities in their countries (if available). According to the World Customs Organization, there are currently 97 operational AEO programs worldwide, with 20 more under development (See the WCO AEO Compendium 2020 Edition for more information on national AEO programmes). Although different governments have different requirements for becoming an AEO, broadly a company must comply with national domestic registration laws, abide by customs and taxation requirements, maintain appropriate records, and practice required safety and security measures. Sometimes these compliance requirements can be burdensome and the process to attain AEO status difficult. According to the International Trade Centre’s (ITC) trade facilitation guide, “it is crucial to design a mechanism which encourages SMEs’ participation in authorized operator schemes.” Further, cooperation on AEO agreements and a mutual recognition of AEOs themselves could facilitate MSME participation in these programs. For additional guidance on the implications of AEO programs for MSMEs, see WCO’s The Authorized Economic Operator and the Small and Medium Enterprise.   Where can policymakers access more resources? WCO SAFE Package: The above-mentioned SAFE package compiles a set of standards, frameworks and tools developed by the WCO over time to secure and facilitate global trade. These are designed for building capacity in trade facilitation matters and guiding countries in the implementation of AEO programs. Visit the WCO site. WCO Authorized Economic Operators (AEO) Implementation Guidance: Presents a 9-phase approach to implement an AEO program under the SAFE package, which aims to provide customs administrations with guidance on AEO-related matters. Visit the WCO website. International Trade Centre: The ITC provides an implementation guide for the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Trade Facilitation Agreement, including information on facilitation measures for authorized operators. Visit the ITC website.   Where can policymakers access good practices or national examples? WCO’s Compendium of Authorized Economic Operator Programmes: This compendium features a list of operational AEO programmes and AEO programmes under development across world regions. Visit the WCO site. APEC’s Integrating SMEs in Authorized Economic Operator Certification: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) secretariat documents best practices and recommendations for policymakers and businesses to seize trade facilitation opportunities from implementing AEO programs. Visit the APEC website. COMCEC’s Authorized Economic Operator Programs in the Islamic Countries: The Standing Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (COMCEC) offers an analysis on AEO program awareness, design, and implementation in three best practices in the world, and among member states of the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Visit the COMCEC site. International Trade Centre: The ITC has documented best practices in AEO programs that have led to benefits for businesses and customs authorities in streamlining trade-related procedures. These are described in their study Faster Customs, Faster Trade.  Mexico’s AEO Programme: The Inter-American Development Bank has documented evidence on the impact that AEO certification has provided to exporting firms. Visit the IDB site. WTO Informal Working Group on MSMEs: Following recommendations submitted by business associations, the Informal Working Group on MSMEs prepared a consolidated document that includes the topic “AEO programmes.”

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      Envois express et envois de faible valeur

      Que sont les envois express et les envois de faible valeur ? Avec l'avènement du commerce électronique dans l'économie numérique, l'Union postale universelle (UPU) a reconnu la "parcellisation" croissante des échanges. En fait, plus de 80 % des marchandises transfrontalières achetées en ligne sont des petits paquets pesant jusqu'à 2 kilogrammes, et la majorité de ces paquets (environ 70 %) sont livrés par le biais du système postal. Cette évolution a modifié les besoins en matière de traitement douanier, car de plus en plus d'envois sont effectués par des particuliers ou des petits vendeurs aux capacités diverses. En quoi cela est-il important pour les MPME ? Les MPME peuvent ne pas avoir l'expertise nécessaire pour se conformer aux exigences douanières, ou peuvent être dissuadées de se lancer dans le commerce en raison de la paperasserie et des exigences liées à l'envoi de colis commerciaux à l'étranger. Une première étape consiste à rendre les informations sur les taxes et les droits de douane facilement accessibles et compréhensibles afin de calculer les coûts prévus. Que peuvent faire les décideurs politiques ? Certains gouvernements ont introduit de nouvelles approches pour traiter les envois de faible valeur. L'Australie, par exemple, applique une taxe sur les biens et les services - connue sous le nom de GST - qui prend la forme d'une taxe générale de 10 % appliquée aux ventes de la plupart des biens, services et autres articles consommés dans le pays. Le Canada a mis au point un système générique harmonisé pour les importations de produits ménagers, qui a été proposé comme modèle pour le développement d'une interface de programmation d'application standard avec des rubriques de classification standard pour l'harmonisation des codes d'identification pour les envois de faible valeur. D'autres groupes de pays ont décidé d'appliquer un taux d'importation forfaitaire à un niveau raisonnable qui remplace tous les droits et taxes. Sur la base de ces approches, la Global Express Association (GEA) a conceptualisé trois grandes options que les décideurs politiques peuvent envisager pour la collecte des taxes et des droits sur les envois de faible valeur. Pour plus d'informations, voir la proposition de la GEA sur la perception des droits et taxes sur les envois importés de faible valeur. Où les décideurs politiques peuvent-ils trouver davantage de ressources ? L'Union postale universelle dispose d'un certain nombre de ressources, dont une application pour téléphone portable permettant de soumettre des données préalables électroniques (DPAE) pour les déclarations en douane, ainsi que des lignes directrices et des guides, des recommandations et des normes. Où les décideurs peuvent-ils trouver des bonnes pratiques ou des exemples nationaux ? Le système australien de la TPS s'applique aux biens importés dans l'économie ainsi qu'à la production nationale. Une explication du fonctionnement du système australien de TPS est disponible ici et une explication de l'importation de biens avec la TPS est disponible ici, ainsi qu'une présentation de l'expérience australienne en matière de commerce électronique. Le système générique harmonisé du Canada pour les importations de produits ménagers est décrit dans la proposition de la GEA sur la perception des taxes et des droits sur les envois importés de faible valeur. Une présentation de la politique du Canada en matière d'envois de faible valeur est également disponible. Le Cadre intégré renforcé (CIR) et l'UPU, en collaboration avec la Conférence des Nations unies sur le commerce et le développement (CNUCED), ont lancé un projet au Vanuatu pour faciliter le dédouanement efficace des colis postaux grâce à l'échange d'informations avant l'arrivée/avant le départ. Vingt-trois autres pays les moins avancés (PMA) dans lesquels les interfaces nationales entre le système de déclaration en douane (CDS) de l'UPU et le SYDONIA (système informatisé de gestion des douanes) de la CNUCED peuvent être établies rapidement ont également été identifiés. Pour plus d'informations, consultez les actualités du FEI sur le commerce pour le développement. La Nouvelle-Zélande, comme l'Australie, a également mis en place un système de TPS. De plus amples informations sur la TPS pour les entreprises d'outre-mer en Nouvelle-Zélande sont disponibles ici. L'UPU publie des études de cas et des bonnes pratiques, telles que Easy Export, qui vise à développer un système d'exportation simplifié et facile pour les MPME. Créé à l'origine pour le Brésil, Easy Export est maintenant appliqué dans d'autres économies, notamment en Tunisie et au Maroc.

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      Guichets uniques et portails nationaux

      What is a national single window?   A national single window refers to a facility where actors involved in trade and transport share standardized information and documents to fulfill regulatory requirements related to trade. Single windows allow traders and government agencies to exchange information regarding trade procedures such as permits and licenses, certificates and necessary approvals, customs clearance, and port exit. The World Customs Organization (WCO) provides more information in its document entitled “Building a Single Window Environment“.   In the absence of a single window, businesses typically must submit the same documents to each relevant authority, which represents significant costs. National single windows simplify procedures and provide businesses with a single point for submitting all required information to all authorities involved in export, import, and transit requirements. This approach can significantly reduce costs, thereby benefitting MSMEs. For more information, see the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s (UNECE) Recommendation No. 33 on Establishing a Single Window and the International Trade Centre’s (ITC) SMEs and the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement.   Which services do national single windows provide?    Single windows can provide a range of services depending on their design and coverage. Mostly, they comprise electronic platforms where business users register to submit customs declarations and applications for import and export licenses and licenses for strategic products. The ITC has developed a training manual for policymakers to understand the scope of national single window services in relation to measures aiming to facilitate trade.   Types of single windows   The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe has described three general models for single windows on its Recommendation No. 33 on Establishing a Single Window: Single authority: This authority receives paper or electronic information that it later disseminates to the relevant government authorities. The single authority also coordinates actions to facilitate the logistical chain. Single automated system: This system integrates the electronic collection, use, dissemination, and storage of trade-related data disseminating the required information to all relevant authorities. Automated information transaction system: This system enables traders to submit electronic trade declarations to the relevant authorities for processing files and obtaining approvals in a single application.   How can policymakers support small businesses to use national single windows?    The ITC provides a toolkit that policymakers can consider to support SMEs through trade facilitation reforms, including actions on streamlining national single windows. The toolkit offers two policy recommendations in mainstreaming small business needs to the design of national single windows. The World Customs Organization (WCO) also provides a framework on modern customs administration that suggests principles for regulatory authorities in coordinating border management procedures to cut time and costs involved in implementing single window requirements.   Going beyond single windows: Integrated Services for MSMEs in International Trade (ISMIT)   The UN Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) advocates for the establishment of national ISMIT platforms. An ISMIT platform is a single submission portal (SSP), which provides access to various services to trade internationally and is complementary to a single window. It goes beyond regulatory procedures covered by single windows and provides services such as financing, logistics, insurance etc. ISMIT platforms offer benefits both to government agencies, which can receive high quality and reliable information submitted according to the standards and formats required by the relevant government agency, and to MSMEs by reducing the time, risk and cost of customs clearance, logistics, and other related activities.   For more detailed information, see the UNECE ISMIT white paper.   Where can policymakers access more resources? Building a Single Window Environment: The WCO provides a compendium of frameworks, guidelines, and tools that policymakers can use to design a national single window. Visit the WCO website. A WCO Guidance on National Committees on Trade Facilitation: This guidance presents resources and action plan examples on single window environments and data harmonization for national committees on trade facilitation. Visit the WCO website. Single Window Planning and Implementation Guide: The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) offers a guide to assist policymakers in planning, developing, and managing single window systems. Visit the UNESCAP website.   Where can policymakers access good practices or national examples? Morocco’s PortNet is an example of a national single window platform. For information on the design and implementation process, see this 2017 brief on PortNet in Morocco. Singapore’s Single Window TradeNet System: Singapore has a single integrated permit processing system that counts with document services centres specialized in preparing and submitting trade documents on behalf of small businesses. Access TradeNet. Single Window for Trade Facilitation: UNESCAP has compiled best practices of single window systems developed in Asia and the Pacific. Visit the UNESCAP website. Senegal’s Experience in Single Windows: Senegal created a national single window (known as ORBUS) in 2004. It designed a single window environment with the broader objective of enabling paperless trade through complementary measures on digital signature and electronic interconnectivity. Learn more about ORBUS. WCO case studies and other information: The WCO maintains information on single window initiatives that are currently at various stages of implementation. Visit the WCO website. Informal Working Group on MSMEs: After reviewing recommendations submitted by business associations, the Informal Working Group on MSMEs  prepared a consolidation of recommendations in 2019 that includes the topic “single windows.”

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      Règles d'origine

      What are rules of origin?   Rules of origin (ROOs) are a set of laws, regulations, and administrative procedures that countries impose to determine where an imported product comes from. At first glance, where a product comes from should be a simple question to answer – wherever it was made. But digging deeper it becomes more challenging: is a product from the place where the materials originated? Is it from where the product was first put together? What if it has many parts all from different locations? And which processing step determines where the product was made?  ROOs provide governments with the criteria to identify whether imports are subject to trade measures such as: most-favoured-nation treatment or preferential treatment from a regional trade agreement; trade remedies; origin marking requirements; quantitative restrictions or tariff quotas; government procurement; and trade statistics. For more information, see the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Technical Information on Rules of Origin.   What are the different types of origin criteria?   When making their declarations to customs, businesses have to present a proof of origin which determines whether their imported products are subject to preferential or non-preferential market access terms. If imported goods are manufactured in multiple countries, the country of origin would be ascertained in accordance with the criteria defined in the rules of origin. The WTO Agreement on Rules of Origin distinguishes two types of rules of origin: Preferential origin: This determines whether products are eligible for preferential (lower or zero) tariffs and other benefits provided under preferential regimes, either in the context of trade agreements or unilateral preferential schemes. Qualifying under preferential origin may require imports to be completely or partially produced in a country that is a beneficiary from the preferential regime under consideration, according to its specific conditions identified. In some cases, however, materials from certain third parties may also qualify as originating. Information on rules of origin and origin provisions in trade agreements can be retrieved in the Rules of Origin Facilitator, an initiative developed jointly by the WTO and the International Trade Centre (ITC). For identifying rules of origin provisions in non-reciprocal preferential schemes, see the WTO’s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTA) database. Non-preferential origin: This is not linked to trade agreements and may determine whether businesses have to comply with non-tariff requirements such as trade remedies and quotas (see guide on non-tariff measures). Not all countries apply specific legislation related to non-preferential rules of origin, and negotiations on adopting harmonized non-preferential rules of origin are still ongoing. The WTO’s Rules of Origin Section provides a list of WTO Members that have notified their non-preferential rules of origin.   What role do rules of origin play in trade policy?   Rules of origin are used to determine the country of origin of goods and shall not, as specified in the WTO Agreement on ROOs, create restrictive, distorting or disruptive effects on international trade. For example, determining rules of origin may be required to verify whether certain products are subject to measures aimed to correct unfair trade practices, protect local industries, or grant preferential access to imports from developing countries or beneficiary countries in regional cooperation agreements. Other reasons that may justify the use of rules of origin range from administering discriminatory government procurement procedures to controlling foreign market access to implementing environmental or sanitary measures. The World Customs Organization (WCO) offers two resources that review technical aspects of rules of origin in a comprehensive manner. These resources are the Rules of Origin – Handbook and the WCO Origin Compendium.   What can policymakers do?   Complying with rules of origin can require a significant amount of resources, especially when these rules vary depending on the countries involved. With the growing number of preferential trade agreements between different groups, it is important to consider streamlining rules of origin and origin procedures whenever practicable to help businesses of any size comply. For more information, see the International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) Business Recommendations on Rules of Origin in Preferential Trade Agreements.   Where can policymakers access more resources? The WCO’s Rules of Origin Handbook and Compendium: This handbook and compendium provides a comprehensive review of frameworks that underpin  the correct application of rules of origin. Access this WCO resource. The WCO’s Training Packages: The WCO offers e-learning courses on rules of origin for international trade professionals, companies, and universities, as well as training opportunities for customs administrations and private sector entities. Visit the WCO website. The WTO Agreement on Rules of Origin: This provides links to official documents and related resources concerning the WTO rules that apply to this area. Visit the WTO website.   Where can policymakers access good practices or national examples? European Commission’s Guidance on Rules of Origin: The European Union provides a number of resources with guidance materials on how economic operators and customs authorities can understand, apply and communicate rules on the determination of preferential and non-preferential origin of goods. Visit the European Commission Quick Guide to Working with Rules of Origin and the European Commission Rules of Origin Webpage. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) Rules of Origin and Origin Procedures Applicable to Exports from Least Developed Countries: This resource examines the rules of origin landscape  and what it means for least developed countries. Visit the UNCTAD website. Informal Working Group on MSMEs: Drawing from recommendations submitted by business associations, the Informal Working Group on MSMEs  prepared a consolidated document that includes the topic of rules of origin.

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      Comités nationaux sur la facilitation des échanges

      What are National Committees on Trade Facilitation (NCTFs)?   National Committees on Trade Facilitation (NCTFs), also sometimes referred to as National Trade Facilitation Committees (NTFCs), are government bodies or mechanisms tasked with the responsibility to facilitate both domestic coordination and implementation of the provisions included in the World Trade Organization (WTO)’s Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). The TFA entered into force on February 2017. Since then, the agreement has been representing a framework for WTO members to facilitate the movement, release and clearance of goods, including goods in transit. TFA’s article 23.2 frames the overall mandate of NCTFs.   What are the key objectives of NCTFs?   While the overall mandate of NCTFs has been framed under TFA’s article 23.2, these committees have been existent across countries to oversee the implementation of trade facilitation reforms enacted since the 1960s. NCTFs across TFA parties share the function of coordinating stakeholders playing a role in implementing the TFA provisions. However, their scope and frequency of work may differ according to political, management and leadership conditions in which they operate. Some of the activities reported by NCTFs include: advising government and making recommendations; collecting and disseminating information on trade facilitation and awareness raising; monitoring technical assistance projects and programmes; negotiating, promoting and monitoring new trade facilitation agreements; and organizing training sessions and capacity building among others.   Why do NTFCs matter for MSMEs?   The World Customs Organization (WCO)’s Guidance for National Committees on Trade Facilitation stresses that including micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) among the committee stakeholders is part of the preconditions for implementing a successful and effective NCTF. As many of the TFA provisions affect the ability of MSMEs to benefit from simplified trade, transit and customs procedures, enabling MSMEs to have representation in NCTFs is vital for ensuring a full compliance with TFA’s article 23.2 and other related articles, such as article 2. The latter emphasizes that all stakeholders affected by customs concerns should be consulted for trade regulatory developments. What can policymakers do?   MSMEs lag behind larger firms in skills, knowledge and access to information, resources and contact to have their voice heard and participate in trade-related policymaking processes. Policymakers can play a role in making the case and creating space for MSMEs to channel their trade-related concerns through NCTFs. The International Trade Centre (ITC)’s Toolkit for Policymakers for Supporting SMEs through Trade Facilitation Reforms outlines key actions policymakers can take to support MSME inclusion in NCTFs including: Developing a communications plan for NCTFs to consult with MSMEs well before trade-related policies and procedures are developed or changed; assessing SME needs and concerns through various information channels; ensuring MSME participation in consultations and feedback; and reviewing MSME impacts of trade policies and procedures.   Where can policymakers access more resources? ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT’s Making the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement Work for SMEs: The International Trade Centre (ITC), the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), and the United Nations Network of Experts on Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) have compiled programmes, measures and interventions that can support the involvement of MSMEs in NCTFs. Visit this ITC-UNESCAP-UNEExT report. UNCTAD’s Resources for National Trade Facilitation Committees (NTFCs): The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) offers resources for policymakers to connect NTFCs with networks, learning platforms and informational tools. Visit this UNCTAD’s website. UNCTAD’s Database of NTFCs: Collects information metrics to assess the performance of NTFCs individually and globally. Visit this UNCTAD database. UNCTAD’s e-Learning for NTFCs: Assists policymakers in understanding key concepts, frameworks and analytical tools on trade facilitation matters. Visit this UNCTAD website. UNCTAD’s Sustainability Score for NTFCs: Assesses the probability of NTFCs to be sustainable over time by analysing several factors, such as scope of work, official set up and membership. Visit this UNCTAD webpage. UNTAD’s Empowerment Programme for NTFCs: Provides capacity building for NTFCs to undertake their mandate and implement trade facilitation reforms that are aligned to the WTO TFA provisions. Visit this UNCTAD webpage. UNCTAD’s Reform Tracker for NTFCs: Is a project management tool for supporting NTFC stakeholders to monitor progress of trade facilitation reforms and to facilitate coordination matters. Visit this UNCTAD Tracker. WTO’s Trade Facilitation Agreement Database: The World Trade Organization (WTO) manages a database that monitors the progress made by WTO members in implementing the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement. Visit this WTO database.   Where can policymakers access good practices or national examples? UNCTAD’s Map on Trade Facilitation Bodies: The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) provides a map with country-level information on NTFCs that have been established up to date and provides key features that characterizes them. Visit this UNCTAD Map. Presentations delivered at the First UNCTAD International Forum for NTFCs: UNCTAD organizes an international forum where country representatives can present on experiences on establishing NTFCs. Visit this UNCTAD website. WTO’s Current Practices and Challenges on NCTFs: The World Trade Organization (WTO) has compiled national experiences, best practices and recommendations with respect to the establishment and functioning of NCTFs. Visit this WTO report.

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      Commerce transfrontalier sans papier

      What is cross-border paperless trade?   Paperless trade refers to the digitalization of information flows required to support goods and services crossing borders. By moving away from paper and opting for digital systems, governments and other stakeholders can speed up and facilitate trade (see guide on Trade Facilitation). Paperless trade can also yield significant environmental benefits by cutting out printing, dispatching, processing, exchanging, and the eventual discarding of vast quantities of paper documents. Paperless trade systems can be B2B, B2G or G2G and have various focuses (e.g. electronic customs declarations, electronic port management systems, electronic single windows).   Why is cross-border paperless trade important for MSMEs?   Paperless trade could significantly reduce trade costs and add up to major savings for traders, especially MSMEs. According to a study conducted by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and Coriolis Technology, digitizing transferable documents could boost MSME trade by 25% and lead to a 35% improvement in business efficiency. Paperless trade can reduce complexity by eliminating the need for copies of the same document, as well as making electronic and immediate transmission of those same documents possible. All of this can reduce the time and effort required, thereby assisting all traders, especially MSMEs, with managing trade-related procedures, such as trade finance requests and logistics operations.   What legal and technical aspects need to be considered when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems?   Legal issues that policy makers should consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include: Legal recognition of electronic transactions and documents: adopting a legal framework that recognizes electronic transactions and documents as equivalent to those based on paper is. The UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records (MLETR) provides useful international guidance in this respect. Trust services: for paperless trade systems to be interoperable, they need to rely on mechanisms guaranteeing an international alignment on what constitutes a valid trust service across borders. See the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures (MLES) for guidance on this issue. Data governance: When documents and information are exchanged between users using electronic systems or between electronic systems, the system must ensure confidentiality (i.e. information is private to only designated parties of the communications) and data integrity (i.e. the accuracy and consistency of data are maintained and assured over their entire life cycle). Liability and dispute management: trading parties and other concerned entities may suffer losses from the incorrect transmission or improper reuse of information and may seek compensation for those losses. Guaranteeing access to civil remedies for such losses and dispute settlement opportunities can help to enhance trust in paperless trade systems, and thereby support their adoption.   In addition to the legal framework, technical issues to consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include digital identity, electronic payments, data models and semantics, communication protocols, connectivity and data security. A list of standards for cross-border paperless trade that can be called upon when putting in place such systems can be found in the joint ICC-WTO Standards Toolkit for Cross-border Paperless Trade.   Detailed guidance on these various legal and technical issues is provided in the Cross-border Paperless Trade Toolkit developed by the WTO in collaboration with the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and UNCITRAL, as well as in the legal and technical readiness assessment guides and checklists developed by UNESCAP.   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? ICC’s Digital Standards Initiative (DSI): The International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) has developed a digital standards initiative. The DSI website includes a page for policymakerswith links to information related to adoption, economic analyses on the benefits of digitalization, and legislation related to the adoption of the MLETR. ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT’s Making the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement Work for SMEs: The International Trade Centre (ITC), the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and the United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade and Transport in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) provide guidance for policymakers to mainstream paperless measures and other trade facilitation components in strategies aimed at developing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Visit this ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT repor WTO-UNESCAP-UNCITRAL Cross-Border Paperless Trade Toolkit: The World Trade Organization (WTO), in collaboration with UNESCAP and UNCITRAL, developed a toolkit with technical and legal tools that can be called upon to adopt cross-border paperless trade systems. UN/CEFACT’s While Paper on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) has a policy document with frameworks, case studies and resources that can guide policymakers to align trade rules with trends in paperless trade. Visit this UN/CEFACT report. UNECE-UN/CEFACT’s Guides on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) have a number of papers and guides on paperless trade, including a 2018 white paper on paperless trade, a roadmap towards paperless trade, and trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation. UNESCAP’s Legal Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP has developed legal readiness assessment guides that countries can use to identify legal issue areas that are relevant to cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website. UNESCAP’s Technical Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP offers technical readiness assessment guides that countries can use to address technical issues on implementing electronic trade systems, paperless environment and actions needed for facilitating cross-border paperless trade data exchange. Visit this UNESCAP website. WCO’s Guide on Dematerialization & Paperless Processing: The World Customs Organization (WTO) has developed guidelines for customs authorities to support the use of electronic means for managing trade-related documents and reduce the hard copy requirements for such documents. Visit this WCO guide.   Where can policymakers access good practices and national examples? Single Window for Foreign Trade in Colombia: A Case Study on Trade Transactions: The International Trade Centre (ITC) has documented Colombia’s experience in establishing a national single window for foreign trade which has enable business to conduct paperless transaction with the support of information and communication technologies. Visit this ITC website. UNECE’s Regional Report on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation: The United Nations Commission for Europe (UNECE) provides an example of regional policy reviews on best practices and opportunities for cooperation in adopting paperless trade measures and other trade facilitation interventions. Visit this UNECE report. UNESCAP’s Readiness Assessments for Cross-Border Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific offers policy toolkits for assessing legal and technical readiness for cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website.

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      Identification de l'entreprise et identifiant de l'entité légale

      Qu'est-ce qu'un identifiant d'entité légale (LEI) ? Un LEI est un code alphanumérique de 20 caractères qui fournit une identification claire et unique aux entreprises et autres entités participant à des transactions financières (pour une description détaillée du code lui-même, veuillez consulter le site web de la Global Legal Entity Identifier Foundation). Il contient des informations sur les structures de propriété des entreprises dont les régulateurs ont besoin pour évaluer les risques financiers et promouvoir l'intégrité du marché. Les LEI font partie des normes mondiales qui s'appuient sur des données de haute qualité pour améliorer la transparence des marchés. De plus amples informations sur ce qu'est un LEI sont disponibles sur le site de la Global Legal Entity Identifier Foundation et sur le site de LEI Worldwide. À la suite de la crise financière de 2008, les régulateurs ont reconnu la difficulté d'identifier les parties à une transaction sur l'ensemble des marchés, des produits et des régions (voir l'article du Conseil de stabilité financière sur le LEI). Le LEI est devenu une réponse réglementaire à ce problème, permettant l'incorporation d'informations clés pour les entités juridiques dans une transaction financière (y compris numérique) sur "qui est qui" et "qui possède qui". Bien que le LEI ait été initialement adopté pour être utilisé dans les échanges de produits financiers dérivés, il a une multitude d'autres applications, notamment pour l'émission de prêts et l'identification des entreprises. Pour plus d'informations sur l'histoire du LEI, voir le site web du Conseil de stabilité financière, ainsi que SWIFT et ce rapport de McKinsey. Pourquoi un LEI est-il important pour les MPME et le commerce ? Bien que le LEI ne soit pas une obligation légale, il présente plusieurs avantages pour les petites entreprises. Tout d'abord, le LEI réduit les coûts d'intégration des clients, qui sont parfois prohibitifs pour les nouveaux clients des MPME. Pour le financement du commerce, les LEI peuvent accélérer l'accès au financement grâce à une meilleure identification et peuvent permettre un traitement plus rapide des lettres de crédit. Les LEI aident également à répondre aux exigences KYC (Know Your Customer), qui sont des directives de services financiers exigeant que l'identité soit vérifiée. Travailler avec d'autres entreprises possédant un numéro LEI peut également apporter aux MPME la sécurité nécessaire pour connaître leurs fournisseurs et leurs partenaires et pour faire des affaires à l'étranger. Enfin, les LEI peuvent aider les MPME à se conformer aux réglementations internationales, à sécuriser leur identité de marque et à améliorer leurs exigences en matière de rapports de conformité. Pour plus d'informations, voir LEI Worldwide. Comment les décideurs politiques peuvent-ils aider ? Les gouvernements et les décideurs politiques ont un rôle à jouer pour encourager l'adoption du LEI, notamment en faisant prendre conscience de l'existence de cet outil et de ses utilisations particulières. Il est non seulement important de comprendre qu'une solution d'identité telle que le LEI a été développée, mais il est également important de faire connaître les avantages qu'elle peut apporter aux MPME en réduisant leurs coûts de transaction et en améliorant leur accès aux marchés financiers. Où les décideurs politiques peuvent-ils en apprendre davantage sur les cadres politiques et les lignes directrices ? Pourquoi une identité de confiance est la première étape vers l'inclusion financière des PME : Cette publication souligne le rôle que les identités numériques de confiance peuvent jouer pour accroître l'inclusion financière des petites entreprises. Accédez à cette page sur le site du GLEIF. Le LEI dans les certificats numériques : La Global Legal Entity Identifier Foundation fournit une série de ressources que les décideurs politiques et les autorités réglementaires pourraient utiliser pour intégrer les LEI dans les certificats et les sceaux, lorsqu'ils sont émis dans un contexte commercial. Visitez le site web du GLEIF. Examen thématique de la mise en œuvre de l'identificateur d'entité légale : Cette publication présente un examen par les pairs des progrès de la mise en œuvre du LEI dans les différents pays et secteurs, réalisé par le Conseil de stabilité financière (CSF). Visitez le site web du CSF. Où les décideurs politiques peuvent-ils trouver les meilleures pratiques et des exemples nationaux ? Recommandation sur l'utilisation de l'identifiant de l'entité légale (LEI) dans les pays de l'UE : Cette recommandation décrit les éléments d'information requis par les réglementations de l'UE pour obtenir un code pré-LEI à des fins de déclaration. Pour en savoir plus, consultez le site de l'Autorité bancaire européenne (ABE). Le LEI : La clé de l'inclusion financière dans les pays en développement : Cette ressource identifie les moyens par lesquels les institutions financières des pays en développement peuvent accroître l'inclusion financière en fournissant aux petites entreprises la capacité d'adopter des LEI. Elle fournit des exemples spécifiques à l'Afrique. Accédez à cette ressource sur le site web du GLEIF. Comment les identificateurs d'entités légales vont transformer les petites entreprises en Asie : Cette ressource donne un aperçu du rôle que les LEI pourraient jouer pour aider les petites entreprises à améliorer leur accès au financement et leur participation aux chaînes d'approvisionnement. Visitez le site de la Banque asiatique de développement (ADB).

Les aspects de la politique commerciale relatifs aux MPME: état de la situation aux niveaux international et régional

  1. Vue d'ensemble de la politique commerciale des MPME dans les organisations internationales

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      Que se passe-t-il au niveau international et régional pour la politique commerciale des MPME ?

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      Le Centre du commerce international

      Le Centre du commerce international (CCI) est une agence conjointe des Nations Unies et de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC), dont la mission se concentre spécifiquement sur les petites et moyennes entreprises. Il a son siège à Genève, en Suisse, et gère une série d'outils et de ressources destinés aux décideurs politiques et aux PME. Parmi ces outils et ressources, on peut citer la page web Market Info & Tools. Apprentissage en ligne La SME Trade Academy propose des formations sur divers sujets commerciaux à l'intention des décideurs politiques et des MPME, notamment sur l'accord de l'OMC sur la facilitation des échanges ou sur la manière de développer le contenu du commerce électronique. Outils d'analyse de marché Il s'agit des outils du CCI destinés aux MPME et aux décideurs politiques. Ils fournissent des informations sur les statistiques d'exportation et d'importation de plus de 220 pays et territoires sur environ 5 300 produits commercialisés au niveau international. Ces outils comprennent : Carte des échanges commerciaux Carte de l'accès aux marchés Carte des investissements Carte de la compétitivité commerciale Carte des marchés publics Carte du potentiel d'exportation Carte du développement durable Informations sur les marchés L'ITC fournit des informations sur le marché aux MPME et aux décideurs politiques par le biais de ressources telles que le blog Market Insider et le Global Trade Helpdesk. Le Global Trade Helpdesk est une initiative coordonnée avec la Conférence des Nations Unies sur le commerce et le développement et l'OMC, qui renvoie à de nombreux outils d'analyse de marché de l'ITC et à d'autres ressources commerciales importantes. Bibliothèque Une bibliothèque en ligne de sources d'informations commerciales est accessible au public. Le catalogue en ligne de la bibliothèque est accessible à tous les utilisateurs, de même que la liste complète des publications du CCI. Parmi les rapports pertinents pour les décideurs politiques, citons le document phare de l'ITC, Perspectives de la compétitivité des PME (SMECO), et des guides pour les décideurs politiques tels que Getting Down to Business : Tirer le meilleur parti de l'accord de l'OMC sur la facilitation des échanges.

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      L'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques

      L'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) est un organisme basé à Paris qui compte 38 pays membres. Entre autres domaines de responsabilité, son secrétariat fournit un large éventail de recherches et de données politiques pour soutenir le développement économique et l'inclusion des entrepreneurs et des PME. La page web consacrée aux PME, à l'esprit d'entreprise et au tourisme est accessible ici. D'autres ressources sont disponibles : L'esprit d'entreprise L'OCDE accorde une grande importance à l'esprit d'entreprise. L'OCDE fournit des analyses et des informations sur les politiques d'entreprenariat, y compris des études de cas et des examens. Dans ce contexte, l'OCDE examine principalement les obstacles et les catalyseurs de l'esprit d'entreprise pour la transition industrielle et la croissance. Financement des PME L'OCDE a inclus le financement des PME dans ses recherches et ses recommandations politiques. En documentant les tendances en matière de financement des PME et en partageant les connaissances et l'apprentissage dans ce domaine, l'OCDE cherche à renforcer l'accès des PME au crédit. L'agenda du G20 et des PME Le programme du G20 et des PME, en particulier en ce qui concerne le financement des PME, est considéré par l'OCDE comme un élément important de la politique internationale en faveur des PME. L'OCDE a notamment contribué à ces travaux par le biais des principes de haut niveau du G20 et de l'OCDE sur le financement des PME et du rapport sur les approches efficaces du G20 et de l'OCDE pour la mise en œuvre des principes de haut niveau du G20 et de l'OCDE sur le financement des PME. On peut également citer sa contribution à des plateformes telles que le Partenariat mondial pour l'inclusion financière (GPFI). L'iLibrary de l'OCDE L'iLibrary de l'OCDE est une ressource importante qui permet d'accéder aux recherches de l'OCDE, y compris sur les PME. Numérisation des PME La numérisation des PME, ou l'initiative mondiale de l'OCDE "Le numérique pour les PME", est une plateforme permettant aux gouvernements de l'OCDE, aux grandes entreprises, aux experts de l'industrie et aux PME elles-mêmes de travailler ensemble sur la transformation numérique des PME. L'initiative se concentre sur la recherche, le partage d'expérience des PME et un espace de dialogue politique sur les PME et la numérisation. Analyse des performances des PME Une analyse des performances des PME peut être entreprise par l'OCDE en collaboration avec les gouvernements nationaux et locaux afin d'analyser le potentiel des PME dans une économie spécifique et d'examiner comment libérer cette capacité. Réunion ministérielle sur les PME La réunion ministérielle des PME de 2018 était une conférence au niveau ministériel de 55 pays membres et non-membres de l'OCDE, ainsi que d'organisations et d'associations internationales. Organisée au Mexique, la conférence avait pour but de discuter des moyens d'améliorer la productivité des PME et la croissance inclusive. À la fin de la session, les 55 pays ont adopté la Déclaration sur le renforcement des PME et de l'entrepreneuriat pour la productivité et la croissance inclusive (également disponible en français).

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      Conférence des Nations unies sur le commerce et le développement

      La Conférence des Nations unies sur le commerce et le développement est un organe des Nations unies dont le siège se trouve à Genève, en Suisse, et qui se concentre plus particulièrement sur les pays en développement. Elle soutient le développement des entreprises par le biais de formations et de projets, entre autres. Une liste complète de ses ressources en matière de développement des entreprises, y compris le cadre politique de la CNUCED en matière d'entrepreneuriat et une initiative mondiale pour la résurgence du secteur des MPME après la crise de 1929, est disponible ici. La CNUCED propose également les ressources suivantes relatives aux MPME : Des informations sur le commerce électronique et une évaluation de l'état de préparation au commerce électronique pour les économies nationales. Formation commerciale et renforcement des capacités axés sur les mesures non tarifaires et autres mesures commerciales susceptibles d'avoir un impact sur les MPME. Des informations sur le transport, la logistique et la facilitation du commerce, y compris le SYDONIA. Le SYDONIA (Système douanier automatisé) est un système de gestion douanière informatisé de la CNUCED qui couvre la plupart des procédures du commerce extérieur, notamment les manifestes, les déclarations en douane, les procédures comptables et les procédures de transit et d'attente. Le SYDONIA peut accélérer et faciliter le processus de dédouanement, ce qui profite à toutes les entreprises, en particulier aux MPME.

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      Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle

      L'OMPI, dont le siège est à Genève, est l'agence des Nations unies chargée de la propriété intellectuelle. Elle est à l'origine de plusieurs traités de propriété intellectuelle et héberge également plusieurs ressources destinées aux décideurs politiques, aux entreprises et à d'autres parties intéressées. Un résumé de ces ressources est présenté ci-dessous. Diagnostic de propriété intellectuelle de l'OMPI L'OMPI propose un outil d'auto-évaluation de la propriété intellectuelle en ligne, lancé en novembre 2021. Cet outil comprend un questionnaire sur plusieurs questions liées à la propriété intellectuelle susceptibles d'affecter votre entreprise et génère un rapport une fois le questionnaire rempli. L'outil est accessible en ligne sur le site web de l'OMPI. Série de guides de l'OMPI sur la propriété intellectuelle pour les entreprises L'OMPI propose également plusieurs guides qui expliquent comment les entreprises peuvent traiter les questions de propriété intellectuelle. La série complète de guides est accessible sur le site web de l'OMPI, et une brève liste des principaux guides destinés aux MPME est présentée ci-dessous. Enterprising Ideas, Guide de la propriété intellectuelle à l'intention des entreprises en phase de démarrage (2021) Looking Good - An Introduction to Industrial Designs for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (mis à jour et révisé en 2019). En bonne compagnie : La gestion des questions de propriété intellectuelle dans le franchisage (révisé en 2019) Inventer l'avenir : Une introduction aux brevets pour les petites et moyennes entreprises (mis à jour et révisé en 2018) Faire une marque : une introduction aux marques pour les petites et moyennes entreprises (mis à jour et révisé en 2017) L'expression créative : Introduction au droit d'auteur et aux droits voisins pour les petites et moyennes entreprises (2006 - en cours de révision) Plusieurs autres guides sont en cours d'élaboration et devraient être disponibles sur le site web de l'OMPI en temps utile. Cartographie des institutions intermédiaires pour les PME et de leurs services L'OMPI a lancé une brève enquête pour recenser les institutions intermédiaires qui fournissent des services de propriété intellectuelle. Les résultats de cette enquête seront inclus dans une base de données accessible au public. L'enquête est accessible sur le site web de l'OMPI. Solutions commerciales pour les offices de propriété intellectuelle L'OMPI apporte également son soutien aux offices nationaux de propriété intellectuelle qui développent leurs propres services à l'intention des utilisateurs nationaux. De plus amples informations sur l'aide disponible sont disponibles sur le site web de l'OMPI.

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      Organisation mondiale du commerce

      Reconnaissant l'importance de l'inclusion commerciale des MPME, l'OMC fournit un certain nombre de ressources différentes pour soutenir les décideurs politiques et les commerçants. Aide au commerce Aide pour le commerce - L'initiative Aide pour le commerce (A4T) menée par l'OMC a fait référence aux besoins et aux problèmes des MPME à diverses occasions. Le programme de travail 2018-19 de l'Aide pour le commerce a examiné comment le commerce pouvait contribuer à la diversification économique, à l'autonomisation et à la réduction de la pauvreté grâce à la participation effective des MPME, des femmes et des jeunes. Le programme a également examiné comment l'A4T aborde les contraintes d'infrastructure liées au commerce, y compris pour les MPME. Le programme de travail pour 2020-22 a souligné l'importance des secteurs dominés par les MPME pour stimuler le développement économique. Le cadre intégré renforcé Le cadre intégré renforcé (CIR) aide les gouvernements des pays les moins avancés à faire face aux contraintes liées à la compétitivité, au potentiel de croissance et aux faiblesses de la chaîne d'approvisionnement, y compris les contraintes spécifiques auxquelles sont confrontées les MPME. Le CIR est un partenariat réunissant plusieurs pays, donateurs et agences partenaires. ePing ePing, un projet conjoint du Département des affaires économiques et sociales des Nations unies (UNDESA), de l'OMC et du Centre du commerce international (CCI), partage des informations sur les exigences en matière de produits. Le site permet aux utilisateurs de rechercher des mesures sanitaires et phytosanitaires (SPS) et des obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC), de recevoir des alertes et de collaborer. Marchés publics Le Comité des marchés publics de l'OMC a lancé un programme de travail sur les MPME en 2012 afin de faciliter la participation des MPME aux projets de marchés publics et de maximiser leur potentiel de croissance. L'augmentation de la participation des MPME aux marchés publics garantit également un processus d'appel d'offres plus compétitif, ce qui permet d'obtenir un meilleur rapport qualité-prix dans les achats publics. Groupe de travail informel sur les MPME Le groupe de travail informel sur les MPME a été lancé lors de la onzième conférence ministérielle de l'OMC en décembre 2017. Le groupe a pour objectif d'identifier et de traiter les obstacles à la participation des MPME au commerce international. Il se compose actuellement de 91 membres de l'OMC et est ouvert à tous les membres. Les documents publiés par le Groupe sont disponibles sur WTO Docs Online et peuvent être recherchés sous le nom "INF/MSME/*". Propriété intellectuelle Le Conseil des aspects des droits de propriété intellectuelle qui touchent au commerce (ADPIC) se consacre à la mise en œuvre des règles de l'OMC en matière de propriété intellectuelle. Dans ce contexte, les membres de l'OMC échangent également des informations sur leurs politiques visant à soutenir la créativité, l'inventivité et les investissements dans la recherche et la technologie des MPME. Les membres ont reconnu l'importance particulière des droits de propriété intellectuelle pour les petites entreprises, dont le capital intellectuel est souvent le principal atout. Les politiques relatives aux MPME présentées dans ce contexte comprennent des programmes d'assistance financière, des efforts de rationalisation des procédures de demande et une transparence accrue des règles de propriété intellectuelle. Le mécanisme de normalisation et de développement du commerce Le Fonds pour l'application des normes et le développement du commerce (FANDC) est un partenariat qui aide les gouvernements à améliorer la mise en œuvre des mesures sanitaires et phytosanitaires, entre autres responsabilités. Ces efforts contribuent à accroître les opportunités commerciales pour les MPME. Commerce et genre Afin d'améliorer l'inclusivité du commerce, certains membres de l'OMC ont également étudié comment soutenir l'autonomisation économique des femmes par le biais du commerce. Ce travail est étroitement lié au travail sur le commerce et les MPME, et de plus amples informations sont disponibles sur le lien suivant. Le Global Trade Helpdesk Enfin, avec le CCI et la Conférence des Nations unies sur le commerce et le développement (CNUCED), l'OMC est l'une des agences à l'origine du Global Trade Helpdesk.

Quelles sources de données concernant les MPME pouvons-nous utiliser à des fins d'analyse ?

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      Quelles sont les sources de données sur les MPME disponibles à des fins d'analyse ?

      What MSME Data Sources are Available for Analytical Purposes?   The Asian Development Bank (ADB) The ADB launched the Asia Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Monitor (ASM) in 2014 and the second edition in 2015. The monitor covers 20 developing member countries from five ADB subregions. The 2020 edition upgrades the ASM by extending analytical coverage to both financial and non-financial topics critical to MSME development. Data from the most recent report, including a time-series of exports for selected countries, are available here.   The International Monetary Fund (IMF) The IMF financial access survey is the key source of global supply-side data on financial inclusion, encompassing data on access to and usage of financial services by firms and households that can be compared across countries over time. Data are available from 2004 and relevant series are marked “…o/w SME.”   The International Trade Centre (ITC) The ITC’s trade map provides information on imports and exports at the firm level that can be disaggregated by a range of features, including: Company name; city and country; list of traded products; number of employees; annual turnover; contact persons; website address; and phone numbers. Accessibility on company data features can vary according to the subscriptions options. For more information, users can visit https://www.trademap.org/ and/or contact by email at [email protected]. In addition, ITC’s SME Competitiveness Survey (SMECS) collects business data in partnership with countries to assist policymakers in developing strategic approaches, policies and interventions on small business competitiveness.   National Trade Data National trade data with firm-size characteristics includes the following examples: Eurostat The main objective of the trade in goods statistics by enterprise characteristics (TEC) is to bridge two major statistical domains which have traditionally been compiled and used separately. These are business statistics and international trade in goods statistics (ITGS). With annual data from 2012 for European countries, the section on trade by partner country and enterprise size class has information on European goods exports and imports by firm size.  Experimental dataset on services trade with enterprise characteristics (STEC). Data are for 2014.  UK Office for National Statistics UK trade in goods by business characteristics. These data detail international trade in goods by industry, age, and size of business with figures from 2013. UK trade in services by business characteristics (size and ownership), industry, and region, on a balance of payments basis using a new experimental dataset. Data are for 2016-18. Statistics Canada Trade in goods by exporter characteristics, by enterprise employment size, and region type (statcan.gc.ca), annual data from 2005. Limited to exports involving the United States and non-United States with information on value and number of exporters. Additional tables are also available for industry, export concentration, country of destination, and export size. Trade in goods by importer characteristics, by enterprise employment size and number of partner countries (statcan.gc.ca), annual data from 2010. Limited to a number of partner countries. Additional tables are also available for concentration of imports, country of origin, country of export, and import size. International transactions in services, commercial services by enterprise characteristics, enterprise employment size and industry, annual (statcan.gc.ca), annual data from 2010.   The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)  The Trade by Enterprise Characteristics (TEC) database contains international annual trade in goods data, broken down by different categories of enterprises. The data provide a solid basis for policy analyses that explore which types of firms are responsible for international trade in goods. It answers questions such as who are the firms that are engaged in foreign markets and what are their characteristics. Both the export and import values and the number of exporting and importing enterprises are available for 26 OECD and 6 non-OECD countries. This includes the 27 EU member states plus Canada, Norway, Israel, Turkey, and the United States. Structural Business Statistics (SDBS) provides a wealth of information at a very detailed sectoral level including turnover, value-added, production, operating surplus, employment, labour costs, and investment, to name a few. The breakdown by industrial sector, including services, is supplemented by a further breakdown into size classes.   The SME Finance Forum  The SME Finance Forum links to a number of useful SME finance data sources, primarily from the International Finance Corporation, which is part of the World Bank Group. These are summarized below.  IFC Enterprise Finance Gap Database – This resource primarily uses data from World Bank Enterprise Surveys to estimate the number of MSMEs in the world and the degree of access to credit and use of deposit accounts for formal and informal MSMEs. The database currently covers 177 countries. IFC Financing to Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises – The IFC Reach Data is based on portfolio reporting from 2004 to the present, drawing from the IFC’s 268 client financial institutions from 84 countries, and detailing the number and quality of loans made to MSMEs. MSME Economic Indicators – The MSME Economic Indicators Database 2019 records the number of formally registered MSMEs across 176 economies. The 2019 update includes the latest economy MSME definitions, number of enterprises, employment figures, and historical data. In addition, the 2019 update kick-starts the collection of information regarding MSME contribution to the economies and includes information on multiple MSME definitions and data sources within an economy. Data are also disaggregated by firm size. Women – SME Finance Categorized Indicators (WSCI) – The WSCI identifies and categorizes “Women Business and the Law 2018” indicators of relevance to SME finance. It is a first step to aggregate and collate gender data systematically to understand the situation, monitor trends, and assess progress. The Women Business and the Law dataset is the most comprehensive Gender Data set covering 189 economies. Systematic trend analysis can facilitate measurement of progress and gaps over time.   World Bank Enterprise Surveys (WBES) Enterprise Surveys Data offers an expansive array of economic data on 171,000 firms in 149 countries, including direct exports and imports of goods and services in certain sectors. The data is presented in a variety of ways useful to researchers, policymakers, journalists, and others. Note that data users should exercise caution when comparing raw data and point estimates between surveys that did and did not adhere to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology. More information on WBES trade data is available here. Researchers can also access the raw survey data by following the instructions here.  

Quelles autres organisations et initiatives régionales et internationales soutiennent le commerce des MPME?

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      Quelles sont les autres organisations et initiatives de soutien au commerce des MPME ?