¿Por qué se habla de mipymes y comercio?

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      ¿Por qué se habla de mipymes y comercio?

      ¿Por qué las mipymes y el comercio? No existe una definición universal de MIPYME. Algunas economías las clasifican por el número de empleados, otras por el volumen de negocios anual, otras por los activos y otras por una combinación de las anteriores. Aunque no haya un acuerdo exacto sobre lo que es una MIPYME, lo que está claro es que son una parte importante de la economía mundial. Algunas estimaciones indican que las mipymes representan aproximadamente el 60 % del empleo mundial, el 50 % del valor añadido y el 95 % de las empresas de todo el mundo (para más información, véase el Informe sobre el Comercio Mundial 2016 de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC)). Además, si se considera su número de empleados, la mayoría de las mipymes son empresas muy pequeñas (o microempresas, con menos de 10 empleados). En algunas partes del mundo, también pueden formar parte del sector informal. Las mipymes comercian menos que las grandes empresas Se ha demostrado que el comercio internacional, y especialmente la participación en las cadenas de valor mundiales (CVM), conlleva una serie de ventajas para los participantes, desde la diversificación de insumos y mercados hasta la transferencia de tecnología y el aumento de la productividad. Sin embargo, no todas las empresas tienen la misma capacidad para participar y cada vez hay más pruebas que demuestran que las mipymes necesitan apoyo para comerciar. Para más estudios al respecto, véase el Informe sobre el Comercio Mundial 2016 de la OMC: Igualar las condiciones comerciales para las pymes, Perspectivas de competitividad de las pymes del Centro de Comercio Internacional (ITC): Conectar, competir y cambiar para lograr un crecimiento inclusivo, y la publicación de la Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) y el Banco Mundial sobre Cadenas de valor mundiales inclusivas). Las MIPYME y el comercio de servicios Los servicios son un sector importante para la participación económica de las MIPYME, especialmente a medida que la economía digital sigue creciendo. Se ha observado que las MIPYME que prestan servicios exportan antes que las MIPYME manufactureras, ya que tienen costes fijos relativamente más bajos para entrar en el comercio internacional (véase el Informe sobre el Comercio Mundial 2019 de la OMC: El futuro del comercio de servicios). El apoyo al comercio de servicios a través de la reducción de las barreras puede ser una forma importante de abrir oportunidades comerciales para las MIPYME. Las mipymes y la digitalización La economía digital ofrece muchas oportunidades para que las MIPYMES comiencen a comerciar internacionalmente. Desde las empresas "nacidas globales" hasta el comercio electrónico, las MIPYME que se digitalizan tienen acceso a herramientas que pueden reducir los costes empresariales y facilitar el comercio. Sin embargo, las MIPYME siguen siendo mucho más lentas a la hora de digitalizarse, ya sea por el acceso a la infraestructura, los costes o la falta de conocimientos digitales. Para más información, véase el informe Perspectivas de competitividad de las PYME del ITC: Ecosistemas empresariales para la era digital, La transformación digital de las PYME de la OCDE y los Informes sobre la economía digital de la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD). MIPYME, comercio y género Las MIPYME son importantes para la inclusión comercial, especialmente cuando se trata de mujeres. Existen grandes diferencias en la participación en el comercio entre las empresas propiedad de mujeres y de hombres. Las empresas propiedad de mujeres suelen ser más pequeñas que las de hombres, según el Informe de la OMC sobre Mujeres y Comercio. Comprender el nexo entre las MIPYME, el comercio y el género es importante, especialmente si se tiene en cuenta que las empresas exportadoras propiedad de mujeres pagan más, contratan más y son más productivas que sus homólogas no exportadoras (véase el informe del ITC Unlocking Markets for Women to Trade). MIPYME e innovación La innovación es crucial para el crecimiento y el desarrollo a largo plazo. Las mipymes que están a la vanguardia de las innovaciones empresariales pueden ser más ágiles que las grandes empresas y estar más dispuestas a experimentar. Sin embargo, por término medio, las mipymes son menos innovadoras que las grandes empresas, según los trabajos de la OCDE. Es necesario un mayor esfuerzo político para fomentar la innovación de las MIPYME (véase OCDE Promover la innovación en las PYME establecidas).

Guías para encargados de la formulación de políticas para ayudar a las mipymes a comerciar

  1. Cuestiones transversales

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      Género

      Comercio y género Cada vez hay más estudios que demuestran que, aunque el comercio internacional puede ser importante para el desarrollo empresarial, la innovación y la resiliencia, es necesario que el comercio sea más inclusivo. Existen obstáculos no sólo para el comercio de las MIPYME, sino también, más concretamente, para las mujeres comerciantes y empresarias, lo que complica sus esfuerzos por aprovechar los beneficios de las oportunidades económicas del comercio. El comercio puede fomentar el empoderamiento económico de las mujeres e impulsar la igualdad de género. Los gobiernos pueden hacerlo posible mediante el desarrollo y la aplicación de políticas comerciales que tengan en cuenta las cuestiones de género, así como mediante la aplicación de los Acuerdos de la OMC con una perspectiva de género. La política comercial puede apoyar a las mujeres empresarias eliminando los numerosos obstáculos adicionales a los que se enfrentan a través de incentivos financieros y no financieros, la contratación pública o el desarrollo de capacidades comerciales. ¿Por qué MIPYME y género? Las mujeres empresarias constituyen una parte importante de las microempresas y las PYME de todo el mundo. Representan alrededor del 30% al 37% (8-10 millones) de todas las MIPYMES en los mercados emergentes (véase MSME FINANCE GAP de 2017). En Nigeria, las mujeres representan el 41% de los propietarios de microempresas, con 23 millones de empresarias operando en el país. Nigeria tiene una de las tasas de emprendimiento femenino más altas del mundo (el informe de PWC puede consultarse aquí). Las mujeres empresarias son en su mayoría propietarias y líderes de microempresas, que suelen ser más pequeñas que las empresas propiedad de hombres o dirigidas por ellos. Por ejemplo, en Canadá, el 92,7% de las empresas propiedad de mujeres tienen menos de 20 empleados (el informe Women Entrepreneurship Knowledge Hub and Women's Enterprise Organizations of Canada puede consultarse aquí). Su microtamaño hace que competir en el mercado internacional sea muy difícil y es una de las muchas razones por las que no están integradas en el mercado mundial (para más información, véase Unlocking Markets for Women to Trade). Las mujeres empresarias no solo se enfrentan a los mismos retos comerciales que las mipymes, como las cargas de costes relativamente más elevadas impuestas por las medidas no arancelarias y los procedimientos aduaneros, sino que también pueden enfrentarse a barreras y costes comerciales adicionales, como las prohibiciones legales a la participación económica, la discriminación adicional para acceder a la financiación y el acceso desigual a la economía digital debido a la persistente brecha digital de género. ¿Dónde pueden los responsables políticos acceder a más recursos? Para más recursos sobre comercio y género, véase: El sitio web de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) sobre la mujer y el comercio contiene información sobre recursos y eventos pertinentes, así como un enlace a la página web del grupo de trabajo informal de la OMC sobre comercio y género. Publicado en 2020, un informe de la Organización Mundial del Comercio y el Banco Mundial, Women and Trade: The role of trade in promoting gender equality, examina el papel del comercio en la promoción de la igualdad de género y ofrece nueva información y datos sobre este importante tema. Otros documentos de interés son: La capacitación económica de la mujer: una parte inherente de la Ayuda para el Comercio "; Disposiciones sobre género en los acuerdos comerciales africanos: Assessment of the Commitments for Reconciling Women's Empowerment and Global Trade ; y Trade Policies Supporting Women's Economic Empowerment: Tendencias en los miembros de la OMC. La página web sobre mujeres y comercio del Centro de Comercio Internacional (ITC) contiene enlaces a recursos como la iniciativa SheTrades del ITC, que es una plataforma para que las empresas, organizaciones y negocios propiedad de mujeres se conecten, accedan a talleres y encuentren proveedores. El ITC también publicó en 2020 un documento sobre la integración de la perspectiva de género en los acuerdos de libre comercio, entre otros informes pertinentes. La Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) también tiene una página web sobre comercio y género con investigaciones y publicaciones relacionadas sobre las formas en que el comercio puede contribuir al empoderamiento económico de las mujeres. La Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD) ofrece una página web sobre igualdad de género, su importancia para el desarrollo sostenible y el papel del comercio. Esta página presenta todas las publicaciones, proyectos y eventos recientes sobre el tema. La página web sobre comercio y género del Banco Mundial es otro recurso que enlaza con las publicaciones pertinentes y los próximos actos sobre la mujer y el comercio. ¿Dónde pueden los responsables políticos acceder a buenas prácticas o ejemplos nacionales? El Grupo de Trabajo Informal sobre Comercio y Género de la OMC ha elaborado un informe de situación en el que se describen los trabajos técnicos realizados por los miembros y observadores de la OMC sobre la capacitación económica de la mujer. Puede consultarse en el sitio web de la OMC

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      Acuerdos comerciales regionales

      What do small businesses matter for RTA negotiations?   Small businesses are the backbone of economies by accounting for most businesses and employment worldwide. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), small businesses represent about 90% of all enterprises and 70% of all jobs in many countries around the world. However, these businesses participate relatively less in international trade than large firms. To bridge this gap, regional trade agreements (RTAs) with small business language have emerged as an avenue for enabling small businesses to integrate more in regional and international markets. The first small business reference in an RTA notified to the WTO was recorded in the EU – Overseas Countries and Territories agreement in 1971. Since then, RTAs including at least one small business-related provision have increased to more than half of all RTAs notified to the World Trade Organization (WTO) as of now. How are small businesses included in RTAs?   RTAs contain provisions that affect trade by businesses of all size. Beyond tariff reductions and trade standardization, RTAs now go further to include small businesses directly with dedicated SME chapters or specific provisions related to small businesses in chapters like investment, e-commerce, intellectual property, competition, government procurement and trade facilitation among others. According to the latest information available in the WTO’s MSME-Related Language in Regional Trade Agreements database, cooperation and government procurement chapters are the ones where RTAs  contain the most small business-related provisions. A report by the WTO Secretariat found that over a half (53%) of RTAs with small business provisions contain a reference on cooperation mechanisms for developing small business capabilities and competitiveness, with such mechanisms ranging from human resources and technology adoption to public-private partnerships and better access to finance, information, and institutional support. How can RTAs impact small business and trade?   RTAs with small business-related provisions offer opportunities for small businesses to engage more in regional and international trade by receiving preferential market access and improved support from public- and private-sector institutions. While most small business provisions have focused on cooperation avenues for developing the trade capacities of small businesses, there is little evidence the latter are aware of how they can benefit from RTAs. For example, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) has found that lack of information has been a stumbling block preventing Southeast Asian small businesses to fully benefit from the over 90 RTAs led by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its member states. High fixed costs in using tariff benefits are another factor constraining the ability of small businesses to seize market access opportunities through RTAs. A study from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) highlighted that smaller firms are less likely to use treaty benefits because they face higher utilization costs than large firms. When larger firms are the ones driving national exports due to their increased use of RTA preferential terms, small businesses can also face higher factor prices for the industry. To level the playing field for small businesses, policymakers need to consider small business needs (see guide on Think Small First Principle) in RTA negotiations and tailor support tools that enable small businesses meet the financial and production requirements to fully reap RTA benefits. Where can I access further resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? ITC’s SME Competitiveness Outlook 2017: The International Trade Centre (ITC) provides a flagship report with research and analysis on mechanisms through which RTAs support small business trade and key areas where policymakers can provide technical assistance. Visit this ITC report. WTO’s MSME Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: The WTO maintains a database of provisions related to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) included all RTAs notified to the WTO by Members. Visit this WTO website. WTO’s Provisions on Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Regional Trade Agreements: The WTO offers a working paper that reviews, analyses and categorises the different types of RTA provisions on small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Visit the WTO paper. Where can I access good practices and national examples? Benefits of EU Trade Agreements for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: The European Parliament provides a framework and assessment on small business awareness of RTA chapters and the latter’s small business benefits. Visit this European Parliament website. Canada’s Approach to Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Free Trade Agreements: The Government of Canada applies a two-pronged approach to integrating small businesses into RTAs by formulated a chapter dedicated to small businesses, and by mainstreaming small business issues through provisions related to small businesses across agreement chapters. Visit this Canada website. ITC’s Business Guide to the African Continental Free Trade Agreement: The International Trade Centre (ITC) offers a guide for small businesses to gain insight in the benefits they can seize from the African Continental Free Trade Agreement. Visit this ITC guide. Malaysia’s Evidence on SME Internationalization through Global Value Chains and Free Trade Agreements: The Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) provides an analysis on firm-level factors driving businesses to leverage on RTA provisions to engage in trade, and highlights key areas where policymakers can provide small business support. Visit this ADBI report. OAS’s MSME Provisions in Trade Agreements: The Organization of American States (OAS) maps out provisions on small businesses included in regional trade agreements adopted by countries across the Americas. Visit this OAS website. Philippines’ Doing Business in Free Trade Areas: The Philippines provides a business guide and dedicated portals to guide small businesses through opportunities businesses can explore in free trade areas. Visit this Philippines website. Switzerland’s new Free Trade Agreements (FTA): Opportunities in Asia, Middle East and America for Swiss Exporters: Switzerland provides online tools and for small businesses to explore opportunities through RTAs and assessments of potential economic benefits reaped by RTAs. See this Swiss paper. The Representation of SME Interests in Free Trade Agreements: The United Kingdom Trade Policy Observatory and Federation of Small Businesses offer a study with policy recommendations for enabling small business trade through best practices in incorporating provisions on small businesses in RTAs. Visit the UKTPO-FSB report

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      Normas de sostenibilidad voluntarias

      What are voluntary sustainability standards (VSS)   Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) are a set of standards which aim to encourage sustainability along global value chains, by ensuring businesses use resources and processes that do not damage the environment or people. This benefits both the business and the consumer, provides good working conditions for employees, and has a positive impact on the environment.   Voluntary Sustainability Standards tend to focus mainly on business sectors such as forestry, farming, mining or fishing, but they also target a range of sustainability objectives, such as: respect for basic human rights; worker health and safety; environmental protection; community relations and others.   To learn more about the concepts and business perspectives around VSS, you can visit the knowledge base of the International Trade Centre’s (ITC) Standards Map see link below.   Types of VSS   VSS can come in various forms depending on which the sector, issue, production process or governance mechanisms they focus on. VSS are mostly governed by non-state actors that include: companies, industry associations not-for-profit organizations   Some well-known standards include GlobalGap, a farm insurance program, or Starbucks’ CAFÉ practice to ethically source coffee beans. Public agencies such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) also develop standards, for example, a process to certify whether products are organic. Other standards are the result of multi-stakeholder initiatives, including the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO).   The International Trade Centre (ITC) website offers information and resources that can give you further insights on the various types of VSS that may be in demand in the market.   Why do VSS matter for my business to trade?   VSS have become increasingly relevant for businesses, consumers and regulators because of their role in contributing to societal objectives such as social rights protection, fair prices, environment conservation, and food security.   Most VSS relate to environmental, social and economic objectives, which assess business practices to ensure sustainability through product quality, management practices and ethics.   With over 500 VSS now in existence, consumers, businesses, governments and other stakeholders are paying closer attention to how companies can consider the needs of consumers, workers and supply chain actors. While the adoption of VSS can represent business costs, it can also lead to benefits in improving management and monitoring systems, productivity, and access to credit, which are relevant for expanding business operations and reaching new markets through participation in international trade.   The International Trade Centre (ITC) offers a VSS SME (Small and Medium Enterprises) training programme for coaches to help business to prepare for VSS certification processes. Canada’s government website also includes an SME Sustainability Roadmap/SME Sustainability Map that may also be able to assist you to gain benefits from VSS certifications.   Who develops VSS?   Industry associations, consumer groups, and other stakeholders collaborate to develop VSS by sharing subject matter expertise and recognizing best business practices. VSS issuers vary according to the standards’ scope. For example, Cocoa Life, the Sustainable Agriculture Network, and the Ethical Trading Initiative are among the organizations granting VSS that apply to single products or a group of products. Other organizations such as Fairtrade Small Producers, and the Rainforest Alliance Sustainable Tourism, focus on the ability of businesses to meet social and environmental objectives.   How can I get started with certification for VSS?   A number of articles, tools and training courses on voluntary standards are available for business owners wishing to learn more about VSS. Some of these are highlighted as follows:   ITC offers an analytical toolkit that enables businesses to review and compare 320+ standards by product, sector, area, or focus. This tool focuses on voluntary sustainability standards (VSS), codes of conduct, audit protocols, reporting frameworks and company programs on sustainability. ITC’s new Sustainability Gateway provides examples of sustainability projects in action. Through ITC’s Sustainability Map, businesses can create an online profile to find partners and customers for gaining access to sustainable markets. The ISEAL Alliance represents a movement of sustainability standards that supports businesses to adopt good practices for mainstreaming sustainability in business operations.   Links to Supporting Information   Trade4MSME Guide Standards   Government of Canada’s SME Sustainability Roadmap SME Sustainability Roadmap (canada.ca)   International Trade Centre’s (ITC) Standards Map StandardsMap   The International Trade Centre (ITC) Sustainability Map Sustainability Map   The International Trade Centre (ITC) Home – SustainabilityMap (sustainabilitygateway.org)   International Trade Centre (ITC) VSS SME coaching program Virtual Workshopping – Training of Coaches on T4SD’s VSS Expert Methodology & Tool   The ISEAL Alliance ISEAL’s resources on sustainability practices for businesses   The Institute of Export and International Trade Export essentials: building and maintaining a green supply chain – The Institute of Export and International Trade

  2. Digitalización

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      Cadena de bloques / tecnología de registro distribuido

      ¿Qué es blockchain? Blockchain, o tecnología de libro mayor distribuido (DLT), es una red digital descentralizada de registros a los que pueden acceder simultáneamente todos los usuarios autorizados y que se actualizan y validan automáticamente si se realiza un cambio autorizado. Todos los cambios llevan un sello de tiempo y las transacciones DLT se basan en el consenso, la replicación y la inmutabilidad. Esto proporciona un alto nivel de seguridad, incluso en transacciones en las que las partes no se conocen entre sí o no disponen de otras herramientas de verificación. ¿Por qué es importante blockchain para las mipymes y el comercio? La tecnología blockchain tiene el potencial de facilitar las transacciones comerciales y el acceso a la financiación, además de reducir costes. Al proporcionar un registro inmutable de las transacciones, las mipymes con acceso a infraestructura informática y los conocimientos digitales adecuados pueden utilizar esta tecnología en sus transacciones comerciales internacionales o proporcionar documentación alternativa para verificar su credibilidad cuando intentan acceder a financiación. De la gestión de identidades a los contratos inteligentes, un artículo de Finextra titulado Blockchain: A game-changer for Small and Medium-sized enterprises ofrece información adicional sobre las ventajas de blockchain para las mipymes. ¿Qué pueden hacer los responsables políticos? Aunque la tecnología blockchain podría reducir las barreras para que las MIPYME participen más en el comercio internacional, hay una serie de retos que deben superarse. Algunos están relacionados con la adopción de la tecnología blockchain, como la escalabilidad, la seguridad, la interoperabilidad y la falta de un marco jurídico claro. Otros retos están relacionados con las propias MIPYME, como la falta de conocimientos técnicos y de acceso a Internet para adoptar, utilizar y aprovechar las ventajas de la tecnología blockchain. ¿Dónde pueden los responsables políticos acceder a más recursos? La Academia de las PYME del Centro de Comercio Internacional (ITC): En colaboración con la Organización Mundial del Comercio, el ITC tiene un curso en línea gratuito llamado Introducción a Blockchain. Fundación para la Tecnología de la Información y la Innovación (ITIF): La ITIF cuenta con una guía para responsables de políticas sobre Blockchain que es un recurso sobre qué es blockchain y sus aplicaciones. También esboza consideraciones para regular esta tecnología. Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones (UIT): La UIT ofrece un grupo de discusión sobre la aplicación de la tecnología de libro mayor distribuido. Más información disponible aquí. Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE): La OCDE tiene varios recursos para los responsables políticos sobre blockchain, incluido un capítulo en su informe titulado La transformación digital de las pymes. Este capítulo se titula Cómo pueden los ecosistemas blockchain servir a las pymes. También tienen un informe de 2019 sobre El entorno político para la innovación y la adopción de blockchain. La Comisión Económica de las Naciones Unidas para Europa (CEPE): La UNECE continúa estudiando la tecnología blockchain y su relación con el comercio, incluso a través de eventos y documentos como las aplicaciones técnicas de blockchain en los entregables de UN/CEFACT y blockchain en la facilitación del comercio. UN/CEFACT hace referencia al Centro de las Naciones Unidas para la Facilitación del Comercio y el Comercio Electrónico. La Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD): La UNCTAD ha publicado A Policymaker's Guide to Blockchain Technology Implementation and Innovation con información práctica para los responsables políticos sobre los requisitos normativos. La Organización Mundial del Comercio: La OMC ha publicado varios informes relacionados con DLT, incluido el Informe sobre el Comercio Mundial 2018 sobre El futuro del comercio mundial: cómo las tecnologías digitales están transformando el comercio mundial, así como ¿Puede blockchain revolucionar el comercio internacional? Estos informes proporcionan información sobre las formas en que esta tecnología puede afectar al comercio y a las MIPYMES. Otros recursos, incluido el mencionado curso en línea conjunto con el ITC, están disponibles aquí. ¿Dónde pueden los responsables políticos acceder a las mejores prácticas y ejemplos nacionales? La Asociación Europea de Blockchain (EBP): Se trata de una iniciativa para desarrollar una estrategia de la UE sobre blockchain y construir una infraestructura de blockchain para los servicios públicos. Visite el sitio web de la Comisión Europea. El Grupo de Trabajo Regional Árabe sobre Fintech: Este grupo de trabajo publicó un informe sobre Estrategias para adoptar tecnologías DLT/ Blockchain en los países árabes. El informe incluye recomendaciones y una visión general de otras iniciativas nacionales de blockchain, incluidas las de Australia y la Federación Rusa. Casos de uso de la tecnología de libro mayor distribuido de la UIT: Visite el sitio web de la UIT para acceder a una serie de casos que estudian cómo se pone en práctica la DLT.

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      Comercio transfronterizo sin papel

      What is cross-border paperless trade?   Paperless trade refers to the digitalization of information flows required to support goods and services crossing borders. By moving away from paper and opting for digital systems, governments and other stakeholders can speed up and facilitate trade (see guide on Trade Facilitation). Paperless trade can also yield significant environmental benefits by cutting out printing, dispatching, processing, exchanging, and the eventual discarding of vast quantities of paper documents. Paperless trade systems can be B2B, B2G or G2G and have various focuses (e.g. electronic customs declarations, electronic port management systems, electronic single windows).   Why is cross-border paperless trade important for MSMEs?   Paperless trade could significantly reduce trade costs and add up to major savings for traders, especially MSMEs. According to a study conducted by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and Coriolis Technology, digitizing transferable documents could boost MSME trade by 25% and lead to a 35% improvement in business efficiency. Paperless trade can reduce complexity by eliminating the need for copies of the same document, as well as making electronic and immediate transmission of those same documents possible. All of this can reduce the time and effort required, thereby assisting all traders, especially MSMEs, with managing trade-related procedures, such as trade finance requests and logistics operations.   What legal and technical aspects need to be considered when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems?   Legal issues that policy makers should consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include: Legal recognition of electronic transactions and documents: adopting a legal framework that recognizes electronic transactions and documents as equivalent to those based on paper is. The UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records (MLETR) provides useful international guidance in this respect. Trust services: for paperless trade systems to be interoperable, they need to rely on mechanisms guaranteeing an international alignment on what constitutes a valid trust service across borders. See the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures (MLES) for guidance on this issue. Data governance: When documents and information are exchanged between users using electronic systems or between electronic systems, the system must ensure confidentiality (i.e. information is private to only designated parties of the communications) and data integrity (i.e. the accuracy and consistency of data are maintained and assured over their entire life cycle). Liability and dispute management: trading parties and other concerned entities may suffer losses from the incorrect transmission or improper reuse of information and may seek compensation for those losses. Guaranteeing access to civil remedies for such losses and dispute settlement opportunities can help to enhance trust in paperless trade systems, and thereby support their adoption.   In addition to the legal framework, technical issues to consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include digital identity, electronic payments, data models and semantics, communication protocols, connectivity and data security. A list of standards for cross-border paperless trade that can be called upon when putting in place such systems can be found in the joint ICC-WTO Standards Toolkit for Cross-border Paperless Trade.   Detailed guidance on these various legal and technical issues is provided in the Cross-border Paperless Trade Toolkit developed by the WTO in collaboration with the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and UNCITRAL, as well as in the legal and technical readiness assessment guides and checklists developed by UNESCAP.   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? ICC’s Digital Standards Initiative (DSI): The International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) has developed a digital standards initiative. The DSI website includes a page for policymakerswith links to information related to adoption, economic analyses on the benefits of digitalization, and legislation related to the adoption of the MLETR. ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT’s Making the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement Work for SMEs: The International Trade Centre (ITC), the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and the United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade and Transport in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) provide guidance for policymakers to mainstream paperless measures and other trade facilitation components in strategies aimed at developing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Visit this ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT repor WTO-UNESCAP-UNCITRAL Cross-Border Paperless Trade Toolkit: The World Trade Organization (WTO), in collaboration with UNESCAP and UNCITRAL, developed a toolkit with technical and legal tools that can be called upon to adopt cross-border paperless trade systems. UN/CEFACT’s While Paper on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) has a policy document with frameworks, case studies and resources that can guide policymakers to align trade rules with trends in paperless trade. Visit this UN/CEFACT report. UNECE-UN/CEFACT’s Guides on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) have a number of papers and guides on paperless trade, including a 2018 white paper on paperless trade, a roadmap towards paperless trade, and trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation. UNESCAP’s Legal Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP has developed legal readiness assessment guides that countries can use to identify legal issue areas that are relevant to cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website. UNESCAP’s Technical Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP offers technical readiness assessment guides that countries can use to address technical issues on implementing electronic trade systems, paperless environment and actions needed for facilitating cross-border paperless trade data exchange. Visit this UNESCAP website. WCO’s Guide on Dematerialization & Paperless Processing: The World Customs Organization (WTO) has developed guidelines for customs authorities to support the use of electronic means for managing trade-related documents and reduce the hard copy requirements for such documents. Visit this WCO guide.   Where can policymakers access good practices and national examples? Single Window for Foreign Trade in Colombia: A Case Study on Trade Transactions: The International Trade Centre (ITC) has documented Colombia’s experience in establishing a national single window for foreign trade which has enable business to conduct paperless transaction with the support of information and communication technologies. Visit this ITC website. UNECE’s Regional Report on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation: The United Nations Commission for Europe (UNECE) provides an example of regional policy reviews on best practices and opportunities for cooperation in adopting paperless trade measures and other trade facilitation interventions. Visit this UNECE report. UNESCAP’s Readiness Assessments for Cross-Border Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific offers policy toolkits for assessing legal and technical readiness for cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website.

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      Preparación en materia de ciberseguridad y ciberseguridad

      What is cybersecurity?   Cybersecurity embodies a set of systems, processes, and actions that protect businesses from digital attacks. It is also known as information technology security or electronic information security. Using technology and digital platforms for commercial activities exposes companies to cybercrime like phishing, malware, or data and identity theft. To counteract these cyber threats, policymakers play a role in raising cybersecurity standards and developing regulatory frameworks that enhance cyber readiness capabilities in businesses. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) provides a definition on cybersecurity and action areas for policymakers in its Recommendation ITU-T X.1205.   Why does cybersecurity matter for small businesses?   An increasingly interconnected world through digital networks has enabled businesses to collect and share more information to reach new customers and innovate. But it has also led to a rise of criminal activities that profit from stealing customer data and spying on business practices. In 2019, a report found that about 7.9 billion records globally were exposed by data breaches, an increase of 112% from 2018. Small businesses are often security breach victims, representing more than 40% of attacks in 2019. Studies have also found that about two-thirds of small companies close within six months of being hacked. Because of these vulnerabilities, MSMEs are often the weak link in global value chains. Since small businesses are so vulnerable to cyber attacks and can link to large anchor firms in global value chains, cyber readiness can be a criteria for the selection of suppliers. Bearing this in mind, policymakers need to develop holistic strategies and action plans to mitigate these threats. For example, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Cybersecurity Policy Making at a Turning Point suggests key elements that cybersecurity strategies can incorporate. A McKinsey article has also outlined questions that can help policymakers formulate action plans on cybersecurity.   What are some cybersecurity risks facing small businesses?    The increased use of digital platforms creates security vulnerabilities that cyber criminals often seek to exploit for illicit gains. During the COVID-19 pandemic, for example, cyber criminals increasingly targeted small businesses due to their lower skills and resources to adopt cyber protection systems. In this context, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) has outlined four key cybersecurity threats facing small businesses: (1) phishing and business e-mail compromise attacks; (2) malware distribution using COVID-19 as bait; (3) remote working and supply chain threats; and (4) heightened vulnerability due to a lack of awareness.   Why is cyber readiness a trade issue?   Cyber readiness and security are important for international trade, especially digital trade. Trade relies on trust, and threats to cybersecurity undermine confidence in digital trade and transactions and make sellers and consumers think twice about using this option. Businesses recognize this fact but have to comply with national regulations. If those regulations do not follow a standardized, risk-based approach, then potential traders are put at a disadvantage. Furthermore, varying requirements add complexity and can significantly increase costs for MSMEs, while at the same time reducing security.   What can policymakers do to support cyber readiness?   Policymakers should aim for aligned approaches to cybersecurity, including consistent use of standards, to reduce complexity and support MSMEs. They can also play a role in raising awareness of the importance for MSMEs to be cyber ready through education programs, certification schemes, and toolkits for mitigating potential cyber risks. For example, the United Kingdom National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) offers a training programme to certify businesses and professionals with cyber security skills aimed at enabling participants to gain awareness, first-hand experience and expertise enhancement on cyber readiness. For more information, visit this NCSC website.   Where can policymakers access policy guidelines, frameworks and trainings? ITU National Cyber Security Strategy Guide: This resource provides actionable guidance for policymakers so that they can gain a comprehensive understanding of the purpose and content for developing a national cybersecurity strategy. Visit the ITU website. ITU Global Cyberecurity Index: This consists of a measurement tool that tracks country progress on cybersecurity commitments around capacity development, cooperation, and regulatory measures. Visit the ITU website. ITU Cybersecurity training: This training is designed to help policymakers understand lifecycles, principles, and good practices of cybersecurity strategies at the national level. Visit the ITU Academy.   Where can policymakers  find good practices and national examples? Canada’s National Cyber Security Action Plan (2019 – 2024): This plan was designed after a comprehensive cyber review conducted in 2016. It led to the development of a cybersecurity assessment and certification program for SMEs. Visit the Canadian government website. ITU’s National Cyber Security Strategies Repository: This resource maps out national policies, action plans, and other relevant resources reported by policymakers around the world. Visit the ITU website. United Kingdom’s Active Cyber Defence: This resource was launched in 2017 to counteract cyber attacks. It led to setting up the National Cyber Security Centre and other programs. A recent study found a 20% reduction in UK-hosted phishing attacks in the 18 months after the strategy was adopted . Visit the UK government website. United Kingdom National Cyber Security Center (NCSC): This center offers certified training in cybersecurity for businesses and professionals, along with advice and guidance on the topic. Visit the NCSC website. United States Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC): This framework looks to make accreditation affordable to small businesses to reduce their risks against certain cyber threats. Visit the U.S. CMMC.

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      Economía digital

      What is the digital economy?   According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation (OECD), “the Digital Economy incorporates all economic activity reliant on, or significantly enhanced by the use of digital inputs, including digital technologies, digital infrastructure, digital services and data. It refers to all producers and consumers, including government, that are utilizing these digital inputs in their economic activities.” In essence, this broad definition captures all aspects of our new digitally supported world, from e-commerce to digitally developed and delivered services like web design. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) works to measure e-commerce and the digital economy, with information available here.   What is the state of play of e-commerce discussions under the WTO?   Issues related to the digital economy are discussed at the WTO in various bodies, including under the Work Programme on E-Commerce, which was established in September 1998, and the Joint Statement Initiative on E-Commerce, which was launched at the 11th Ministerial Conference (MC11) in Buenos Aires in 2017. In addition, since 1998 WTO Members have agreed not to impose customs duties on electronic transmissions. For more information on such discussions, see the dedicated WTO page on e-commerce. Information on other WTO discussions related to the digital economy can be found on the WTO Digital Technologies & Trade page.   What trade opportunities does the digital economy hold for MSMEs?   The digital economy provides many important business tools and trade opportunities for businesses, especially MSMEs. Some of these include:  Digital banking and e-payments: Electronic finance can provide individuals with easier, cheaper, and safer access to financial services. Additionally, e-payments have made it possible to conduct transactions online, making it easier to transfer money across accounts for a good bought or a service rendered. For more information see the guide on electronic cross-border payments and visit the International Chamber of Commerce website.  Digital platforms: The new digital economy is based around platforms – search systems, marketplaces, application development software, and some others. These platforms have applications for all businesses, opening the doors to new industries and players, from micro firms to digitally connected businesses in every digitally connected economy of the world. For more information, see the 2021 Global Value Chain Development report. Blockchain: Blockchain, or distributed ledger technology (DLT), is a decentralized digital network of records that can be simultaneously accessed by all permitted users and that are automatically updated and validated if an authorized change is made. Blockchain technology holds the potential to facilitate trade transactions and access to finance as well as to reduce costs. See the Guide on Blockchain for more information. E-commerce: This covers goods and services sold and bought online, including transactions done through marketplaces. It reduces trade barriers and increases opportunities for businesses by expanding their sales. In order for businesses to access these benefits, it is important that national economies be e-commerce ready. For more information, see the Guide on e-commerce readiness. Visit UNCTAD’s Digital Economy Report. E-documents/e-signatures: Electronic documents can speed a transaction. For example, electronic trade documents, such as for customs and trade transactions, reduce submission errors and the costs of paperwork and procedures. For more, visit Trade Finance Global.     Risks and inequities of the digital economy  The digital economy has many risks, especially for MSMEs, that need consideration and care. A value chain is only as secure as its weakest link and businesses of every size are targets for cybercrime, which is why it is essential for MSMEs to be prepared. Visit the Cyber Readiness Institute and see the guide on cyber readiness. Another important note about the digital economy is its uneven access. Many are excluded from the digital economy either because of access to technology or lack of training and understanding of these new resources. For MSMEs in particular, lack of access to capital can prevent integration of new digital technologies. Where can I access further resources?  eTrade for all, initiated by UNCTAD, is a global partnership to make the digital economy and its opportunities more accessible. eTrade for all links to several resources, including publications on digitalization and e-commerce. It also has information on development solutions, including in seven key policy areas, with contact information for interested policymakers to learn more.  The OECD published a report on The Digital Transformation of SMEs. This report looks at the need for SMEs to be prepared to adopt digital technology, the gaps that persist in technology adoption, and recent trends. The OECD Digital for SMEs Global Initiative provides links to reports, the programme of work for this initiative, and related events. UNCTAD’s Digital Economy Reports cover themes ranging from software and cloud computing to value creation and cross-border data flows. These reports provide an in-depth look at the various aspects of the digital economy. UNCTAD also hosts many dialogues and conferences related to digitalization and SMEs. More information is available on their website. WTO’s Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) Database: Is a repository of the legal texts and annexes of all RTAs notified by WTO members, including preferential tariffs and trade data provided by RTA parties, and other related documents. The database also provides information on a number of provisions related to the digital economy, such as e-commerce. For more information on RTA provisions, visit the WTO’s Glossary on RTA provisions and the WTO RTA Database.

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      Evaluación de la preparación para el comercio electrónico

      How can a country be ready for e-commerce?   E-commerce readiness refers to a variety of policies, frameworks, and institutional actions that enable countries to engage effectively in e-commerce. It considers country-level dimensions on trade, technology, education, finance, and law that determine challenges and opportunities for public and private sector actors to enable an e-commerce ecosystem. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has an initiative known as eTrade for All, which advises countries to engage in e-commerce by addressing seven policy areas: (a) e-commerce readiness assessments; (b) information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure and services; (c) payment solutions; (d) trade logistics; (e) legal and regulatory frameworks; (f) skills development; and (g) access to financing.     What could e-commerce readiness assessments aim for?    Developing national e-commerce readiness starts with conducting a nationwide assessment of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges in the enabling environment for an e-commerce ecosystem. An e-commerce readiness assessment can inform decision-makers across public and private sector institutions about the priority areas and key stakeholders that can play a role in enabling a national e-commerce ecosystem.    Which policy areas are relevant for e-commerce readiness?    UNCTAD’s eTrade for all initiative suggests seven policy areas and provides an array of programs to support e-commerce readiness across the world. Some examples per policy area that can be considered are as follows: E-commerce readiness assessments: The World Customs Organization (WCO) has an E-Commerce Web-Corner that provides instruments, topics, and tools for developing e-commerce policies and strategies. ICT infrastructure and services: UNCTAD offers an ICT Policy Review Programme, which examines national policies on information and communication technologies to identify enablers and obstacles for e-commerce readiness. Payment solutions: The Universal Postal Union (UPU) in partnership with other private sector institutions, runs the Financial Inclusion Technical Assistance Facility. This facility is designed to assist countries in adopting the latest technologies for enhancing efficiency and outreach in postal financial services.  Trade logistics: The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) provides advice for countries to facilitate trade through measures that range from creating national single windows to promoting paperless trade transactions.  Legal and regulatory frameworks: UNCTAD provides assistance to countries in developing legal and regulatory frameworks to build confidence in e-commerce, while promoting secure online business and economic wellbeing.  Skills development: UNCTAD has a program known as TradeForTrade, which builds trade knowledge and skills for governments, business, and citizens to seize opportunities in international trade and e-commerce.  Access to financing: The SME Finance Forum is a global network where actors engaged in funneling financing for e-commerce projects can connect and cooperate.   Where can I access further resources on policy frameworks and guidelines? The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Measuring electronic commerce: The OECD provides a framework for identifying issues associated with measuring e-commerce. Visit the OECD website. The International Trade Centre’s (ITC) Bringing SMEs onto the E-commerce Highway: This resource addresses e-commerce policies that affect the engagement of small businesses in cross-border e-commerce. Visit the ITC website. The Commonwealth’s Policy Guide for Least Developed Countries, Small States and Sub-Saharan Africa: This publication offers recommendations that can help some developing countries to build capacity for developing e-commerce policies and engaging in global digital trade matters. Visit the Commonwealth website. WTO’s Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) Database: Is a repository of the legal texts and annexes of all RTAs notified by WTO members, including preferential tariff and trade data provided by RTA parties, and other related documents. The database also provides information on e-commerce provisions contained in RTAs. Visit the RTA Database. For more information on the type of e-commerce provisions that RTAs may include, visit the WTO’s Glossary on RTA provisions.   Where can I see best practices and national examples? Regulations, Policies and Initiatives on E-Commerce and Digital Economy for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) MSMEs’ Participation in the Region: This resource presents applied research and analysis on policies and actors that play a role in enabling small business engagement in e-commerce. Visit the APEC website. UNCTAD Rapid eTrade Readiness Assessments of Least Developed Countries: This resource consists of a tool to inform policy measures that can support the capacity of least developed countries to assess e-commerce readiness. Visit the UNCTAD website.

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      Pagos electrónicos transfronterizos

      ¿Qué son los pagos electrónicos? Los pagos electrónicos (e-payments) son transacciones digitales que los usuarios realizan para pagar bienes y servicios en Internet. Para ejecutar los pagos electrónicamente, las empresas y los particulares utilizan una variedad de métodos de pago electrónico que van desde los pagos con tarjeta y débito hasta las transferencias bancarias, el pago por móvil y las transacciones de la Cámara de Compensación Automatizada (ACH). Los pagos electrónicos son básicamente operaciones financieras habilitadas por dispositivos electrónicos, como ordenadores, teléfonos inteligentes o tabletas. Para más información sobre los modelos de pago electrónico y los tipos de transacciones, véase Electronic Payment Services and E-Commerce de la Cámara de Comercio Internacional (CCI) y la nota fintech 19/91 "The Rise of Digital Money" del Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI). ¿Por qué son importantes los pagos electrónicos para que las mipymes comercien? Los avances tecnológicos de los últimos años han permitido a las instituciones financieras y no financieras modernizar los métodos de pago que ofrecen a los usuarios. Estudios realizados por el Banco de Pagos Internacionales (BPI) y el Fondo Monetario Internacional han documentado el rápido crecimiento que están experimentando las tecnologías digitales en relación con los instrumentos tradicionales. Dado que las tecnologías digitales ofrecen instrumentos de pago más eficientes y menos costosos, las pequeñas empresas pueden beneficiarse del uso de opciones de pago electrónico para reducir la incertidumbre y los costes, especialmente en las transacciones comerciales internacionales. Otras ventajas que tienen los pagos electrónicos para las mipymes a la hora de participar en el comercio van desde la agilización de las actividades de pago transfronterizas en las aduanas hasta la reducción de los riesgos de fraude y de los onerosos gastos administrativos. Para más información sobre pagos electrónicos y transacciones en línea, consulte los siguientes artículos y documentos: El artículo del BPI sobre las tendencias de los pagos digitales, "Payments go (even more) digital"; El documento de trabajo del FMI WP/21/177 "Is Mobile Money Part of Money? Understanding the Trends and Measurement"; La Guía de aplicación para la facilitación del comercio de la Comisión Económica para Europa de las Naciones Unidas (CEPE); y El documento de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) "Trade finance for SMEs in the digital era". ¿Qué dificultades encuentran las mipymes a la hora de utilizar los pagos electrónicos? Aunque las tecnologías digitales han contribuido a la rápida expansión de los servicios financieros, los mercados de pagos electrónicos se enfrentan a retos normativos que obstaculizan la capacidad de las pequeñas empresas para tener un mayor acceso a las opciones de pago transfronterizas para el comercio. Un reciente estudio de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) ha demostrado que sólo una cuarta parte de los miembros de la OMC han liberalizado completamente los pagos transfronterizos en virtud de los compromisos del Acuerdo General sobre el Comercio de Servicios (AGCS). El Foro Económico Mundial (FEM) y la Cámara de Comercio Internacional (CCI) han identificado cuatro áreas clave en las que los responsables políticos podrían intervenir para reducir las fricciones en los mercados de pago electrónico: (a) barreras de acceso al mercado y trato nacional; (b) normas técnicas; (c) seguridad y confianza; y (d) coordinación y supervisión de políticas. Para más información, consulte la página del FEM Connecting Digital Economies y su libro blanco Addressing E-Payment Challenges in Global E-Commerce, así como el documento de la CCI Issues Brief on Electronic payment services and e-commerce. ¿Dónde puedo acceder a recursos sobre marcos y recomendaciones políticas? Recomendaciones políticas para los pagos transfronterizos: El FEM esboza las áreas clave en las que los responsables políticos pueden comprometerse y cooperar para reducir la complejidad de los mercados de pagos electrónicos. Visite Conectar las economías digitales: Recomendaciones políticas para los pagos transfronterizos. Alcance de los compromisos existentes en materia de servicios de pago electrónico: El FEM describe el estado actual de los compromisos multilaterales y las negociaciones plurilaterales sobre los aspectos de los servicios de pago electrónico y el comercio electrónico relacionados con el comercio. Lea el documento del FEM. Orientaciones de política de los consumidores sobre pagos móviles y en línea: La Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) ofrece una guía que los responsables políticos pueden utilizar para abordar cuestiones de protección de los consumidores al diseñar políticas dirigidas a los mercados de pagos móviles y en línea. Lea la guía de la OCDE. Marco analítico sobre tecnología financiera y regulación de pagos: El Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) documenta las experiencias internacionales recientes en la modernización de los marcos jurídicos y normativos de los servicios de pago. Enlace al marco del FMI. ¿Dónde puedo encontrar buenas prácticas y ejemplos nacionales? Guía de pagos electrónicos para países en desarrollo: El Centro de Comercio Internacional (CCI) ha elaborado una guía sobre reformas jurídicas y normativas y mejores prácticas que los responsables políticos pueden utilizar para abordar cuestiones de política de pago electrónico en los países en desarrollo. Visite la guía del CCI. Iniciativas de aceptación de pagos electrónicos: El Banco Mundial ha documentado una revisión de la literatura y ejemplos de países para orientar a los responsables políticos en el diseño de incentivos para fomentar la aceptación de pagos electrónicos. Acceda a la revisión del Banco Mundial.

  3. Consideraciones jurídicas y propiedad intelectual

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      Contratos comerciales y controversias

      Why do MSMEs need model contracts?   MSME often have relatively lower access to legal advice when negotiating a contract or managing a dispute than large firms. Also, MSMEs may be the weaker contractual parties and could have difficulties in ensuring that the contractual balance is kept. A wide range of international conventions and model laws enable MSMEs to access a fairer and more uniform contractual regime and to reduce their contract administration costs. Having access to standardized and uniform contracts can simplify establishing new international relations between businesses and reduce trade costs for MSMEs.    With this in mind, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) has developed a wide range of conventions, model laws, and contractual terms that can be used by either governments or by parties to international trade contracts. This includes conventions on international commercial arbitration, mediation, and electronic commerce, among others. For a full list of UNCITRAL instruments, visit this website.   One notable instrument is the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), also referred to as the Vienna Convention. This instrument provides substantive and procedural rules governing contracts for the international sales of goods between private businesses, excluding sales to consumers and sales of services, as well as sales of certain specified types of goods. As of September 2020, UNCITRAL reported that 94 States had acceded to the CISG (access the full list of States).   How can governments help?    Ensuring that MSMEs can enforce their contractual rights, regardless of the place where the contract is executed, can avoid parallel proceedings. In turn, this can reduce MSMEs’ costs of administering their contracts and disputes with foreign counterparts. Beyond the CISG, multiple international organizations have developed conventions to which governments can adhere and model laws that can provide guidance to facilitate the recognition and enforcement of foreign awards.    UNIDROIT instruments  The International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT) has developed a wide range of model laws and conventions for specific trade-related transactions. These include, among others, franchising, agency, factoring, leasing, and international sales of goods, as well as common contractual principles that parties to international trade contracts can use. The UNIDROIT Principles 2016 is a valuable resource for more information.    The Hague Judgments Convention, formally the Convention of 2 July 2019 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil or Commercial Matters  The Convention establishes common criteria according to which judgments from one Contracting Party will be recognised and/or enforced in another. The Convention facilitates the circulation of judgments among its Contracting Parties, thus ensuring that a successful party will have a meaningful judgment. This approach also provides this party with an opportunity to enforce the judicial award abroad with shorter timeframes, costs, and risks. The Convention applies to the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil or commercial matters, including consumer and individual employment contracts. The Convention does not apply to the status and legal capacity of natural persons, family law matters, insolvency, privacy, intellectual property, and certain antitrust matters.  The full text of the Convention can be accessed online.    HCCH Convention of 30 June 2005 on Choice of Court Agreement The Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCCH) Choice of Court Convention ensures that parties’ choice of forum is upheld by courts, thereby creating a climate more favourable to international trade and investment. The Convention contains three key obligations. The first of these is that the court chosen by the parties must hear the dispute. Any non-chosen court must suspend/dismiss proceedings, in favour of the chosen court. Judgments given by the chosen court must be recognized and enforced in other Contracting Parties, ensuring their global circulation. As such, the Choice of Court Convention has a similar effect to the recognition of arbitration agreements under the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. Judgments given by the chosen court must be recognised and enforced in other Contracting Parties (Article 8), ensuring their global circulation. The Convention can be accessed at the HCCH website.    UNCITRAL, HCCH, and UNIDROIT Legal Guide to Uniform Instruments in the Area of International Commercial Contracts, with a Focus on Sales The purpose of the UNCITRAL, HCCH, and UNIDROIT Guide is to provide a description on the complementary nature of the UNDROIT, UNCITRAL, and the Hague Conference’s instruments when more than one instrument applies to a transaction.   United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York, 10 June 1958)  The New York Convention applies to the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards and the referral by a court to arbitration. It establishes common criteria for recognizing and/or enforcing arbitral awards made in the territory of one Contracting Party in that of another.

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      Protección de la propiedad intelectual y diferencias

      What is intellectual property (IP) and what are IP rights?   IP refers to creations of the mind and includes inventive products or processes, designs, distinctive signs, and creative works. Among other scenarios, IP may be generated by investments in research and development, or by activities aimed at differentiating products by improving product quality, reducing production costs, and/or delivering greater value to customers. IP rights are generally private rights granted by governments to individuals, businesses, or associations to exclude others from using a protected work without the owner’s permission for a limited period of time, subject to exceptions, limitations, and exclusions. IP rights are granted and enforced at the domestic level and valid only in the jurisdiction in which they have been registered or otherwise acquired. See the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Guide to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) for an introduction to the organization’s intellectual property rules, as well as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the International Trade Centre’s (ITC) guidebook on Secrets of Intellectual Property, A guide for small and medium-sized exporters for more information.       What are the different types of IP rights?    IP assets can be grouped into two main categories: Copyright and related rights: Copyright refers to the rights of authors in their literary and artistic works, including books, music, films, computer programs, and advertisements. Related rights include the rights of performers over their performances, producers over their “fixations” (recordings) of performances, and broadcasting organizations over their broadcasts. Copyright and related rights seek to encourage and reward creative work. See WIPO’s Understanding Copyright and Related Rights for more information. Industrial property: Industrial property can be sub-divided into two fields:  Distinctive signs and geographical indications, which inform consumers, prevent consumer deception, and help to ensure fair competition among producers. Within this field, there are further sub-categories of trademarks and geographical indications. Trademarks: These are any sign or combination of signs, including words, letters, numerals, figurative elements, and colour combinations, capable of distinguishing the goods and services of one undertaking from another. These signs or sign combinations be protected as a trademark. Geographical indications (GIs): A GI is a sign that identifies a good as originating in a place where a given quality, reputation, or other characteristic is essentially attributable to its origin. Some examples are well-known names of food products from specific locations, including coffee, cheese, wine, and spirits. Patents, industrial designs, and trade secrets, among other types of IP, which aim to stimulate innovation and enable the transfer and dissemination of technology and associated know-how. See WIPO’s Understanding Industrial Property for more information. Within this field, there are several sub-categories. Patents: Patents protect inventions or new solutions to a technical problem in the form of a product or process. Various technologies found in smartphones, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and self-driving cars are patented in certain jurisdictions. Industrial designs:  New and independently created ornamental or non-functional aspects of an article, such as its shape, patterns, lines, or colours, may be protected as an industrial design. Businesses create industrial designs to customize products, develop new market segments, and strengthen brands. Household products, textiles, toys, and cars often incorporate industrial designs.  Trade secrets: Information that is secret, has commercial value because it is secret, and has been subject to reasonable steps to keep it secret may be legally protected as a trade secret. Also known as “undisclosed information,” manufacturing processes, algorithms, customer lists, and formulas for producing products may constitute trade secrets.   Why does IP matter for MSMEs to trade?    Domestic IP laws and regulations have implications for product development, design, and delivery; marketing; exporting; licensing and franchising; and pricing. They can also influence businesses’ ability to raise financial resources and attract foreign investors and partners. Identifying the various types of IP that businesses develop, which IP rights to protect and enforce, and in which jurisdictions, are important steps for international traders. Researching which IP rights are already protected for other businesses in the fields where a company conducts its activities in a target market is also critical to avoid infringement.  As IP rights are protected and enforced at the domestic level, exporting goods and services often entails navigating through IP laws and procedures applicable in each target market to assess whether export licenses are needed and which trademarks are appropriate for the markets considered. For more information on why IP rights matter for exporters, see this WIPO training of trainers presentation.    What issues can emerge for MSMEs in dealing with IP frameworks?   MSMEs are not always aware of the benefits of IP and may also lack the resources to effectively protect what IP they have registered. Additionally, MSMEs may unknowingly infringe on another company’s or individual’s IP rights and be taken to task, especially when they enter unfamiliar jurisdictions. The variations in IP frameworks between markets contribute to the IP challenges faced by smaller firms. There are a number of initiatives that pursue harmonization and integration of these frameworks, especially at the regional level.   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks and guidelines?    The World Intellectual Property Organization offers a number of useful tools, including: WIPO Methodology and Tools for the Development of National IP Strategies: WIPO helps countries in formulating IP strategies with linkages to national development goals through research, audits, and national consultation processes. Visit the WIPO website. WIPO Policy and Legislative Assistance: WIPO provides policy and legislative advice in the areas of copyright, patents, trademarks, industrial designs, geographical indications, genetic resources, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, and building respect for IP. Visit the WIPO website. WIPO IP Office Business Solutions: WIPO offers business solutions to IP offices in national and regional institutions that play a role in enabling countries to participate effectively in the global IP system. Visit the WIPO website.   Where can policymakers access best practices and national examples? Guidebook for SMEs’ IP-Business Cycle: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum compiled a list of policies and models that public institutions in Asia and the Pacific can use to formulate IP policies and programs with a small business focus. Visit the APEC website. OECD SME Policy Index (Latin America and the Caribbean): The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has developed a SME Policy Index that assesses measures related to small business policy design, including IP-related matters. The SME Policy Index has been applied to Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru and throughout the Latin America and the Caribbean region. Visit the OECD website.

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      Medidas comerciales correctivas

      What are trade remedies?   Trade remedies are border measures applied by governments on imports of a product where the total imports have surged (safeguards) or the imports are dumped or subsidized (anti-dumping and countervailing measures, respectively); and where the imports in question have been found to have injured the competing domestic industries. Anti-dumping, countervailing, and safeguard measures are regulated by three separate agreements of the World Trade Organization (WTO): the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (known as the Anti-Dumping Agreement); the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM Agreement); and the Agreement on Safeguards (SG Agreement). For small businesses, trade remedies should be looked at from two perspectives: where the products of small businesses are subject to trade remedies investigations and measures in export markets; and where small businesses request the application of trade remedies in respect of imports competing with their products in their own markets. For more information on trade remedies, please see WTO’s Trade Topics on Anti-Dumping, Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, and Safeguard Measures. How can trade remedies affect small businesses that export?   Where small businesses are exporting a product to a market in which a trade remedy on that product is in effect, the product will be subject to additional import duties, or in the case of safeguards possibly quantitative restrictions. These remedies will increase the costs of and regulations for entering the goods into the export market, beyond the normally applicable customs duties and other taxes applicable to imports.   If a small business participated in the investigation leading up to the application of a trade remedy measure, this would imply work and associated costs in providing the information required in the investigation, and in representing the business’s interests before the investigating authority in the importing country that is conducting the investigation.   Small businesses that export thus should be familiar with the nature and operation of trade remedies, and of the investigations that must be conducted for trade remedies to be applied. For more information, see WTO’s Handbook of Anti-Dumping Investigations. What can policymakers do? When governments conduct trade remedies investigations, they are expected to bear in mind the challenges faced by small businesses that are exporters of the investigated goods, as provided for in Article 16.3 of the Antidumping Agreement: “The authorities shall take due account of any difficulties experienced by interested parties, in particular small companies, in supplying information requested, and shall provide any assistance practicable.” Governments of exporting economies also can provide assistance to small business exporters that find themselves involved in trade remedy investigations or affected by trade remedy measures.   How can small businesses seek the application of trade remedies on imports of products they produce?   Depending on the circumstances, trade remedies may be one possible source of relief for small businesses facing competition from imports that may be dumped or subsidized, or may be surging. Representativity requirements on domestic producers seeking application of anti-dumping and countervailing measures on behalf of a domestic industry mean that small businesses would need to work with others in their industry to apply for trade remedy relief. See experiences documented by government offices, such as the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). Governments can provide assistance to applicants, including small businesses, in preparing applications to open trade remedy investigations. What can policymakers do? Policymakers can, for instance, develop knowledge portals with clear guidelines on procedures that small businesses could follow to file a trade remedy application. Examples of such initiatives include the European Commission’s SME Trade Defence Helpdesk and the United States International Trade Commission’s Trade Remedy Assistance Program.   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Briefs on trade remedies: The WTO provides dedicated webpages with information on official meeting documents, reports and member actions on trade remedies. Visit the separate WTO webpages dedicated to anti-dumping, countervailing and safeguards measures.   Where can policymakers access information on good practices or national examples? A Business Guide to the African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: The International Trade Centre (ITC) has prepared a guide for policymakers to understand provisions on trade remedies and other areas that expected from the African Continental Free Trade Agreement. Link to this ITC report. Australia’s International Trade Remedies Advisory Service (ITRA Services): Australia has a government office dedicated to support importers deal with trade remedies by preparing applications for trade remedy investigations, continuation inquiries, duty assessments, and exemptions. Visit this IRTA Services website. European Commission’s Guide on Trade Defence Instruments for Exporters: The European Union offers a guide for exporters to better understand concepts around trade remedies and receive advisory sources on how to manage trade defence investigations. Visit this European Commission guide. European Commission’s Guide on Trade Defence Instruments for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises: The European Commission provides a guide for small businesses on principles, procedures and business support mechanisms related to trade defence instruments used by European Union member states. Visit this European Commission guide. International Trade Centre’s Business Guides to Trade Remedies in Brazil: The International Trade Centre (ITC) offers a guide for businesses to gather relevant information on trade remedy procedures required by Brazil. Visit this ITC guide. International Trade Administration Commission (ITAC) of South Africa: ITAC has a Trade Remedies Unit that administers trade remedies instruments by investigating cases of dumping, subsidised imports and surge of imports, in accordance with domestic legislation and consistency with WTO rules. Please visit this ITAC website. Philippines’s Bureau of Import Services: The Philippines government has a dedicated unit where entities that are concerned with unfair market practices can file a trade remedy petition and submit the relevant forms to specified contact points. Visit this Philippines website.

  4. Reglamentación

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      Política de competencia

      What is competition policy?   Competition policy comprises the full range of measures that may be used to promote competitive market structures and behaviour by enterprises, including but not limited to a comprehensive competition law dealing with anti-competitive practices of enterprises.   Why does competition policy matter for MSMEs?   Well-designed and implemented competition policy supports efficient and well-functioning markets, benefits end, and industrial, consumers, and supports innovation. Anti-competitive practices, if left unaddressed, can result in slower economic development, misallocation of resources, higher prices, lower product quality or limited consumer choice. For micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to thrive, they need a competitive environment in which they can compete on the merits and without being treated unfairly by their suppliers, consumers or competitors. Such an environment creates incentives for MSMEs to innovate and bring to market new goods or services.   Competition policy concerns MSMEs both as possible perpetrators of anti-competitive practices and as victims of such practices. To avoid becoming perpetrators, MSMEs need to take pains to comply with any binding rules implementing a chosen competition policy (competition law). Competition law violations such as bid rigging or other anti-competitive coordination involving competitors or distributors may expose MSMEs to substantial financial penalties. As victims of anti-competitive practices, MSMEs may be forced out of a market, lose market share or be unable to enter a new market, if such practices are left unchallenged.   What issues can emerge for MSME perpetrators of competition law violations and what are possible policy options? Lack of awareness on the part of MSMEs of the risks associated with competition law violations. Policy option: Undertaking targeted governmental campaigns to educate MSMEs about their exposure to legal risks under competition law. Competition law is complex and can be difficult for MSMEs to navigate competently and confidently. Policy option: Enhancing clarity of aspects of competition law of concern to MSMEs by issuing competition authority guidelines to enhance legal certainty about what SMEs are or are not permitted to do. Insufficient diligence by MSMEs to prevent competition law violations. Policy option: Promoting and encouraging the adoption and use by MSMEs of compliance programmes to protect themselves against inadvertent competition law violations.   What issues can emerge for MSME victims of competition law violations and what are possible policy options? Dominant companies may abuse their market position to disadvantage MSMEs (e.g., by refusing to supply them, charging excessive prices, boycotting them, hindering access to essential facilities, etc.). Policy option: Prohibiting companies from abusing a dominant position. Anti-competitive agreements imposed by a supplier on its dealers (e.g., vertical cartels providing for resale price maintenance) or concluded among suppliers (e.g., horizontal price-fixing cartels) may prevent MSME dealers from competing effectively with other dealers or MSME purchasers from being profitable. Policy option: Prohibiting anti-competitive agreements (cartels) among companies (Caveat: It may be appropriate to permit cooperation among MSMEs that is not anti-competitive and clarify the permitted scope for cooperation through appropriate guidelines. MSMEs may need to be able to enter into cooperative agreements with other MSMEs, e.g., on research and development or distribution, to be efficient and competitive). Mergers and acquisitions can create a dominant position of a newly created company or reinforce a dominant position of an existing company to the detriment of MSMEs operating in the same market. Policy option: Controlling mergers and acquisitions, including by prohibiting them, where appropriate, or permitting them under conditions. MSMEs may hesitate to contribute to the enforcement of competition law (e.g., because of fears about reprisals from companies engaging in anti-competitive conduct, the lack of prompt and effective remedies, or insufficient expertise on competition law). Policy options: Encouraging enforcement of competition law by or on behalf of MSMEs by allowing anonymous reports to competition authorities about suspected violations; providing for the possibility of requesting urgent interim measures to avoid serious irreparable harm; and supporting MSMEs in getting access to affordable competition law expertise (e.g., from competition authorities or other entities). Where can policymakers access more resources? The United Nations set of principles on competitionis a set of non-binding multilateral instrument setting out principles aimed at, inter alia, attaining greater efficiency in international trade and development through the creation, encouragement and protection of competition; control of the concentration of capital and/or economic power; and encouragement of innovation. UNCTAD’s Training course on the Interface between SME Development and Competition Policy highlights how competition policy and law can be leveraged to further market entry, growth, and sustainable development of MSMEs, with a particular focus on times of emergency (COVID-19 pandemic). The ICC SME Toolkitdeveloped by the International Chamber of Commerce suggests practical tools for small businesses to enhance compliance with competition law. The UNESCAP report on the Role of Competition Policy in Strengthening the Business Environment for MSMEs in the ASEAN Region discusses issues of competition policy and law relevant to MSMEs in Southeast Asia and includes recommendations on how competition policy and MSME policy can work together to benefit those enterprises. APEC’s issues paper on SMEs, Competition Law and Economic Growth examines the theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the synergies between SMEs, competition law and economic growth with a particular focus on the APEC region. Competition Policy For Development: A Report On UNCTAD’s Capacity Building And Technical Assistance Programme sheds light on UNCTAD’s mandate as a focal point of competition-related discussions within the UN system and highlights the capacity building work carried out by the organization.

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      Contratación pública

      What is government procurement?   Government procurement (GP) refers generally to the purchase, lease or rental of goods, services, and construction services by governmental bodies in fulfilment of their public service responsibilities.   Why does GP matter for MSMEs?   GP typically represents a large volume of domestic public expenditure, amounting to 10-15 percent of a country’s GDP on average. It thus constitutes a highly significant economic opportunity for MSMEs seeking to do business with governments. In most countries, MSMEs are by far the most common enterprises, and hence account for a significant proportion of overall employment. However, MSMEs are generally underrepresented in most countries’ GP markets.   What issues can emerge for MSMEs in their home markets and what are possible policy options to enhance SME participation in government procurement? Difficulties in accessing information about GP opportunities Enhancing transparency Providing for electronic access to tender opportunities and information Inexperience in tendering for government contracts Building MSME capacity to participate in tenders at home Offering post-award debriefing sessions by procuring entities with unsuccessful MSME candidates Organizing training, coaching and technical assistance activities, including web-based ones, for MSMEs focusing on effective participation in tenders (such as preparing offers and submitting electronic tenders) Burdensome requirements and other barriers to MSME participation in tenders Designing MSME-friendly participation-related requirements Reducing the burden of tender preparation, including by relaxing documentation requirements (self-certification, documentary evidence only on request), setting workable time limits for MSMEs and providing for electronic submission of tenders. Minimizing registration-related fees and limiting financial tender guarantees in the case of MSMEs Providing for proportionate and appropriate technical, commercial and financial conditions for participation (e.g. lower annual turnover allowing MSMEs bids, reasonable prior experience requirements, etc.) Overly large procurement contracts that MSMEs could not fulfil Designing MSME-friendly public contracts Splitting large public contracts into smaller ones that MSMEs could fulfil (lots) and allowing MSME to bid jointly or to subcontract Late payment by procuring entities Promoting good payment behaviour by procuring entities Ensuring timely payment to support MSME cashflow or providing for interim or advance payment   What issues can emerge for MSMEs in markets abroad and what are possible policy options to enhance SME participation in government procurement? Obstacles to accessing government procurement markets abroad Implementing a trade policy oriented towards the progressive opening of the domestic government procurement market on the basis of mutual reciprocity Negotiating accession to the plurilateral WTO Government Procurement Agreement 2012 (GPA 2012) and concluding bilateral free trade agreements containing government procurement chapters with market access commitments, which options provide legal guarantees for MSMEs from signatory countries to access covered government procurement markets abroad Inexperience in tendering for government contracts Building MSME capacity to participate in tenders abroad Organizing training, coaching and other technical assistance activities for MSMEs seeking to participate in tenders abroad, organized by their Ministries or official export promotion agencies at home and embassies or helpdesks in their export markets   Where can I access resources on policy frameworks and guidelines? The Asian Development Bank’s Guide on SME Development gives an overview on barriers faced by MSMEs in participating in government procurement and options for policy makers. The UNDP’s Playbook on Inclusive Public Procurement explores how supplier diversity can be promoted in keeping with important government procurement principles. The Open Contracting Partnership’s Guide on Access to Government Procurement by Minority-Owned Small Businesses explores how local governments can expand access to government procurement opportunities for minority-owned small businesses. For case studies, see also the Open Contracting Partnership’s Guide on Inclusive and Effective Public Procurement: Findings and Lessons from Research in 12 Countries. The OECD Public Governance Reviews. Report on SMEs in public procurement practices and strategies for shared benefits takes stock of the policy options used in OECD and non-OECD economies to integrate SME considerations in government procurement. The World Bank Group/Business Environment Working Group (BEWG) of the Donor Committee for Enterprise Development (DCED)’s Technical Report: Policies that Promote SME Participation in Public Procurement analyses and assesses the impact of various preferential treatment policies benefitting SMEs in government procurement based on a series of country level case studies. The International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO’s Guide on SME and export-led growth in public procurement programmes identifies how programmes in government procurement can support SMEs in becoming more competitive as far as exportation is concerned. Public’s Guide on “Global SME Procurement Benchmark” focuses on good practices for promoting SME participation in government procurement and points to key opportunity areas. The WTO GPA Knowledge Series event on “Bidding for government procurement opportunities abroad: the lowdown for SMEs” gives practical advice on how SMEs can take advantage of opportunities to win government contracts abroad and overcome related challenges. The OECD SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2020 – Assessing the implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe is addressed to European policymakers and their external partners and examines how better SME-support policies can be designed and delivered.

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      Medidas no arancelarias

      ¿Qué son las medidas no arancelarias? Las medidas no arancelarias son medidas políticas que pueden afectar potencialmente a los bienes comercializados modificando sus cantidades, sus precios o ambos. Entre los fines de las medidas no arancelarias figuran la protección de la salud pública o del medio ambiente, y pueden implicar costes de información, cumplimiento y procedimiento. Estas medidas pueden aplicarse tanto a las importaciones como a las exportaciones y se dividen en 16 categorías. La Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD) ofrece una lista completa de medidas no arancelarias y sus definiciones. ¿Cuáles son los distintos tipos de medidas no arancelarias? A continuación encontrará un cuadro con las principales categorías de medidas no arancelarias que puede encontrar. Las dos primeras, A y B, se aplican a los importadores, o compradores, y el punto P de la parte inferior del cuadro se aplica únicamente a los exportadores, o vendedores. Es importante señalar que algunas de ellas, como los contingentes y las medidas de inversión relacionadas con el comercio, están prohibidas por las normas de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC), salvo en circunstancias específicas. Para más detalles, consulte el Acuerdo General sobre Aranceles Aduaneros y Comercio (GATT) de la OMC. Medidas técnicas sobre las importaciones A Medidas sanitarias y fitosanitarias (MSF): Incluyen medidas para restringir sustancias, garantizar la seguridad alimentaria y evitar la propagación de enfermedades o plagas. (Véase la guía sobre medidas sanitarias y fitosanitarias) B Obstáculos técnicos al comercio: se refieren a los requisitos de producto, técnicos o de calidad. También incluyen medidas sobre etiquetado y envasado. (Véase la guía sobre OTC) C Inspección previa a la expedición y otras formalidades aduaneras: Implican otras medidas técnicas. Medidas no técnicas a la importación D Medidas contingentes: Incluyen medidas antidumping, compensatorias y de salvaguardia. E Licencias y cuotas: También abarcan los controles de cantidad y otras restricciones relacionadas. F Medidas de control de precios: Afectan a los precios de los bienes importados. G Medidas financieras: Restringen el pago de las importaciones y las condiciones de pago. H Medidas de competencia: Conceden privilegios a uno o varios operadores económicos. I Medidas de inversión relacionadas con el comercio: Imponen a la inversión condiciones de contenido local o de exportación. J Restricciones a la distribución: Regulan la distribución interna de los productos importados. K Restricciones a los servicios postventa: Restringen, por ejemplo, la prestación de servicios accesorios. L Subvenciones y otras formas de ayuda: Incluyen transferencias financieras a empresas, particulares u hogares. M Restricciones a la contratación pública: Restringen a los licitadores la venta de productos a un gobierno extranjero. N Propiedad intelectual: Implican restricciones o normas relacionadas con los derechos de propiedad intelectual. O Normas de origen: Se trata de criterios relativos al origen de los productos o sus insumos, que pueden influir en que éstos estén sujetos a restricciones, derechos u otras medidas. P Medidas relacionadas con la exportación: incluyen las cuotas de exportación y otras prohibiciones a la exportación. Cómo puedo empezar a identificar las medidas no arancelarias? Las cámaras de comercio, las asociaciones industriales y las agencias comerciales pueden ofrecer portales en línea con listas de medidas no arancelarias aplicables a sus productos. Las empresas también pueden identificar restricciones comerciales en sus mercados objetivo utilizando cuatro herramientas en línea disponibles, que se describen a continuación: Market Access Map: Esta base de datos contiene normativas no arancelarias específicas que se aplican a las exportaciones o importaciones de productos, así como un rastreador de medidas comerciales temporales puestas en marcha en respuesta a COVID-19. Sistema de información para el análisis del comercio (TRAINS): La base de datos TRAINS ofrece una lista exhaustiva de las medidas no arancelarias disponibles para más de 160 países, que abarcan más de cuatro quintas partes del comercio mundial. Global Trade Helpdesk: El Global Trade Helpdesk proporciona una visión general de las medidas no arancelarias procedentes del Market Access Map y TRAINS, así como otra información sobre normas de origen, estadísticas comerciales y procedimientos relacionados para importadores o exportadores que se dirijan a mercados extranjeros. Solución Comercial Integrada Mundial (WITS): La WITS presenta perfiles de países sobre medidas no arancelarias por tipo. Enlaces a información complementaria La Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD) ofrece una lista completa de medidas no arancelarias y sus definiciones Clasificación Internacional de Medidas No Arancelarias - edición de 2019 (unctad.org) Acuerdo General sobre Aranceles Aduaneros y Comercio (GATT) de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) | Textos jurídicos - Acuerdo de Marrakech Guía Trade4MSMEs Medidas sanitarias y fitosanitarias Guía Trade4MSMEs Obstáculos técnicos al comercio Centro de Comercio Internacional ITC Market Access Map UNCTAD TRAINS Centro de Comercio Internacional CCI Global Trade Helpdesk Sistema Integrado de Comercio Mundial WITS

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      Medidas sanitarias y fitosanitarias y obstáculos técnicos al comercio

      What are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures?   SPS measures consist of laws, decrees, regulations, requirements, and procedures that countries adopt to protect human, animal, or plant life and health against certain risks. These measures generally aim to promote food safety and protect against risks stemming from cross-border spread of contaminants, diseases, and pests affecting animals and plants. Examples of SPS measures include: requirements for products to come from disease-free areas; specific treatment or processing of products; thresholds for pesticide residues; and permitted use of certain additives in food. However, these measures can also sometimes act as trade restrictions, especially for smaller firms with fewer compliance resources, and it is important that policymakers ensure that all firms can easily comply. For more information, see Understanding the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.    What are the types of SPS measures that can apply to imports?    SPS measures can be said to include six broad categories:  prohibitions or restrictions of imports for sanitary and phytosanitary reasons;  tolerance limits for residues and restricted use of substances;  labelling, marking, and packaging requirements directly related to food safety;  hygienic requirements related to sanitary and phytosanitary conditions;  treatment for elimination of plant and animal pests and disease-causing organisms in the final product or prohibition of treatment; and  other requirements relating to production or post-production processes.  In addition, SPS measures cover procedures to verify that products meet SPS requirements. For a more comprehensive list of SPS measures, see the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) International Classification of Non-Tariff Measures.   What are technical barriers to trade (TBT)?    TBT measures include product-related technical regulations and standards, as well as procedures to assess compliance with the requirements set out in these regulations and standards. While conformity with standards is voluntary, technical regulations are mandatory. TBT measures are used by a country for safety reasons, to protect the environment, to enhance national security, or to provide information to consumers, among other considerations. For more information, see the WTO Agreement Series on Technical Barriers to Trade.   What are examples of TBT measures?   TBT measures can take the form of:  testing and certification requirements to ensure product quality, safety, or performance;  labelling, marking, and packaging requirements;  production or post-production requirements;  product identity requirements; and  product quality, safety, or performance requirements.     Some examples of TBT measures include packaging or labelling requirements, such as health warnings on tobacco products; regulations on product characteristics, such as energy performance requirements for electrical appliances; or conformity assessment procedures, such as testing procedures for motor vehicle safety requirements. For more information on what constitutes a TBT, see the WTO’s information on Technical regulations and standards. For a complete list of different types of TBT measures, see UNCTAD’s International Classification of Non-Tariff Measures (chapter B).   Why do SPS/TBT measures matter for MSMEs?   While SPS and TBT measures are important to protect human, animal, or plant life or health and ensure the quality of products, keeping abreast of new measures and complying with them may be challenging for small businesses. For example, the International Trade Centre (ITC) SME Competitiveness Outlook 2016 found that increases in the frequency of regulatory or procedural trade measures have been associated with larger decreases in the export value of MSMEs compared to larger firms.   What can policymakers do?   Policymakers can play a role in reducing the costs and complexity associated with SPS and TBT measures by involving MSMEs in regulatory- and standard-setting processes. Applying a Think Small First Principle (see guide on the Think-Small-First Principle) can make the voice and concerns of MSMEs heard and help tailor TBT and SPS measures to MSME needs. In addition, policymakers can enhance their transparency efforts by notifying the adopted final text of technical regulations, conformity assessment procedures, and other developments in TBT and SPS measures. The World Trade Organization (WTO)’s SPS Measures and Transparency Toolkits for TBT contains guidelines and resources for policymakers to communicate their updates on TBT and SPS. Policymakers can also raise MSME awareness of the e-ping platform which facilitates tracking of SPS and TBT measures, in particular by receiving email alerts on notifications on products and/or markets of interest as well as contact information of enquiry points.   Where can policymakers access more resources? The ePing SPS&TBT Platform: This Platform allows search of SPS/TBT information on notifications, specific trade concerns, as well as the contact information of enquiry points (and notification authorities). Of particular interest to exporters is ePing’s customized email alerts service to receive early notice of changes to regulations. Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) Good Regulatory Practices: This guide is designed for developing economy government officials tasked with developing SPS measures. Visit the report. STDF also offers funding opportunities for public sector entities, business support organizations, and non-profit NGOs for SPS-capacity building projects. Visit the STDF funding opportunities webpage.   WTO’s Agreement Series on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures: This resource is designed to improve public understanding of the WTO’s Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures by describing key features of the SPS Agreement and addressing frequently asked questions on SPS matters. Visit the WTO website. WTO’s Practical Manual for SPS National Notification Authorities and SPS National Enquiry Points: This resource provides advice and guidance for governments to facilitate the implementation of transparency provisions of the SPS Agreement and understand the framework of SPS measures in trade. Visit the WTO website.   Where can policymakers access further resources on TBT policy guidelines and frameworks? WTO’s Technical Information on Technical Barriers to Trade: This resource Underlines the principles of the WTO’s Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade and their relevance for international trade. Visit the WTO website. WTO TBT Enquiry Point Guide: This guide documents best practices on the performance of enquiry points for TBT measures and offers insights for training and capacity-building purposes. Visit the WTO website.

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      Principio "pensar primero a pequeña escala" o "desde el prisma de las pequeñas empresas"

      ¿Qué es el principio de "pensar primero a pequeña escala" o "lente de la pequeña empresa"? El principio de "pensar primero a pequeña escala" es un enfoque político que tiene en cuenta las necesidades, puntos de vista e impactos de las pequeñas empresas a la hora de diseñar legislación, políticas y normativas. El principio de "pensar primero a pequeña escala" o "óptica de pequeña empresa" se basa en el hecho de que "una talla no sirve para todos", lo que significa que la elaboración de políticas debe tener en cuenta los efectos desproporcionados que las normativas tienen en empresas de todos los tamaños y, por tanto, ofrecer requisitos simplificados que sean fáciles de cumplir para todos los usuarios finales. El documento Think Small First de la Comisión Europea, el Small Business Lens de Canadá y el SME Test de la SME Policy Institute Association ofrecen recursos útiles sobre este principio, que se tratarán con más detalle en esta guía. ¿Por qué es importante tener en cuenta a las pequeñas empresas en la elaboración de políticas? Las pequeñas empresas representan la mayor parte del empleo y la actividad económica en países de todo el mundo. Y, sin embargo, a menudo son difíciles de alcanzar por los procesos de consulta política y se enfrentan a mayores cargas y costes a la hora de cumplir con los requisitos políticos. El principio de "pensar primero a pequeña escala" o "óptica de la pequeña empresa" constituye una directriz básica que los responsables políticos pueden adoptar para integrar las consideraciones relativas a la pequeña empresa en todas las fases de diseño, aplicación y evaluación de las normativas. Adoptar la óptica de la pequeña empresa en la formulación de políticas puede ayudar a reducir la complejidad normativa y los costes de cumplimiento que las nuevas políticas pueden tener para las pequeñas empresas. Las políticas que simplifican las normas y los procedimientos administrativos para las pequeñas empresas les facilitan, en última instancia, el cumplimiento de la ley. ¿Cómo puede el principio de "pensar a pequeña escala" o "óptica de la pequeña empresa" ayudar a las pequeñas empresas a comerciar? Con la misma importancia que tienen las consideraciones sobre la pequeña empresa para los procesos generales de elaboración de políticas, pensar primero a pequeña escala importa para diseñar, negociar y aplicar la política comercial. Aunque las pequeñas empresas son los principales motores del empleo y la actividad económica, no participan en el comercio internacional en igualdad de condiciones que las grandes empresas. Aplicar el "principio de pensar a pequeña escala" puede permitir que las políticas y los acuerdos comerciales a escala nacional, bilateral, regional y multilateral incluyan a las pequeñas empresas. A su vez, esto desempeña un papel en el desarrollo de requisitos y disposiciones comerciales para permitir que las pequeñas empresas participen en el comercio transfronterizo al tener que hacer frente a menos costes de cumplimiento y tener un mejor acceso al apoyo empresarial, la financiación y la información necesaria para hacer negocios internacionales. La Federation of Small Business Trading Forward ofrece más información sobre cómo los responsables políticos pueden empezar a enfocar el principio de "pensar primero a pequeña escala" para apoyar a las pequeñas empresas a comerciar. ¿Dónde pueden los responsables políticos acceder a más recursos sobre marcos políticos, directrices y herramientas? Índice de políticas para PYME de la OCDE: La Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) utiliza un índice de políticas para las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PYME) con el fin de orientar a los países en la fijación de objetivos para el desarrollo de políticas que afecten a las pequeñas empresas. Visite el sitio web de la OCDE. ¿Dónde pueden los responsables políticos acceder a buenas prácticas y ejemplos nacionales? Nota orientativa de Australia sobre las mejores prácticas de consulta: El Gobierno de Australia elaboró unas directrices para que los reguladores lleven a cabo procesos de consulta política integradores y tengan en cuenta cuestiones prácticas a la hora de implicar a las pequeñas empresas. Visite este sitio web del Gobierno de Australia. Small Business Lens Checklist de Canadá: El Gobierno de Canadá elaboró nueve listas de comprobación para que los organismos reguladores incluyan a las pequeñas empresas en los procesos de formulación de políticas y tengan en cuenta sus necesidades y posibles repercusiones a la hora de cumplir los requisitos normativos. Visite este sitio web del Gobierno de Canadá. Consulta de la Comisión Europea a las partes interesadas en la elaboración de políticas que afectan a las pequeñas empresas: La Comisión Europea evaluó los métodos y procedimientos de los procesos de consulta política para determinar cómo se puede mejorar la participación de las pequeñas empresas en la formulación de políticas a escala nacional y regional. Visite este sitio web de la Comisión Europea

  5. Comercio de servicios y facilitación de las inversiones

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      Comercio de servicios - Panorama general

      Modes of services supply   The World Trade Organization’s (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) distinguishes between four modes of services supply. This is a way of characterizing and sorting services transactions by the territorial presence of suppliers and consumers and it is a helpful framework for thinking about how a service, which is usually intangible, can be traded across borders. Learn more at the WTO website. Cross-border supply (Mode 1): This occurs when businesses from one territory sell services to customers located in another territory. For example, an architect in country A sends building plans to a developer in country B. Consumption abroad (Mode 2): This refers to domestic businesses selling services to foreign customers present in their market. Examples are tourism or medical services provided to foreign visitors. Commercial presence (Mode 3): This consists of services sold by foreign companies to domestic customers through local affiliates, subsidiaries, or representative offices established in the customers’ market. An example is a foreign hotel group selling vacation packages to domestic residents. Movement of natural persons (Mode 4): This characterizes services provided by a services professional or an employee of a services firm who is temporarily present in the territory of the customers. For example, an IT specialist that travels abroad to develop a new piece of software for a local client. Why does services trade matter for small businesses trying to reach new markets?    Since 2011, trade in services has been expanding at a faster pace than trade in goods. The WTO’s World Trade Report 2019 found that commercial services trade grew 5.4% each year on average between 2005 and 2017, totalling USD 13.3 trillion in 2017. Technological progress and greater access to the internet have enabled services businesses to reach customers without needing to be in physical proximity with them, thus reducing the cost of trading services. Trade in services has also led to opportunities for small businesses to become early exporters. WTO findings have shown that services-based small businesses are on average two years younger than small firms in manufacturing sectors when they start exporting. However, the small firms in services sectors are overall less internationalized than their peers in manufacturing activities, suggesting areas for policy improvement.   Policy considerations on services trade   Trade in services remains subject to higher barriers than trade in goods, although most economies have opened up their services sector over the past few decades. Indeed, trade costs in services are almost double those in goods. These costs have remained higher despite the lowering of policy barriers, the spread of digital technologies and investment in infrastructure. There have been some improvements, however, with these costs decreasing by 9 percent between 2000 and 2017.   This situation has implications for countries worldwide, as barriers in services trade prevent a more efficient allocation of resources, the achievement of greater economies of scale, and an increase in the variety of services on offer, ultimately affecting the productivity of firms economy wide. Enhanced international cooperation may help reduce frictions in services trade and untap the potential for small businesses to trade services.    For more on this topic, see the WTO’s World Trade Report 2019.   Where can policymakers access other resources on policy frameworks, guidelines, and tools? ITC Business Survey on Obstacle to Services Trade: The International Trade Centre (ITC) conducts surveys that can help countries identify services trade barriers. Visit the ITC survey. OECD Services Trade Restrictiveness Index Regulatory Database: This resource from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) contains information on trade restrictions and behind-the-border regulations in multiple services sectors, including computer services, construction services, and telecommunications services, among others. Visit the OECD database. UNCTAD Trade Policy Frameworks for Developing Countries: The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) offers a manual of best practices that can provide guidance to key actors involved in developing national trade policy frameworks. Visit the UNCTAD website. World Bank Report, At Your Service? The Promise of Services-Led Development: This resource presents the findings of World Bank experts on the prospects for services-led development strategies that can help low- and middle-income countries catch up with high-income countries while expanding job opportunities through services-led trade and economic activity. Visit the World Bank website. WTO Guide to reading the GATS schedules of specific commitments and the list of Article II (MFN) exemptions: This resource includes a full list of WTO Members’ schedules and MFN exemption lists on services trade under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Visit the WTO website. WTO Trade Monitoring Database (TMDB): This database monitors services trade measures that WTO Members have been introducing since October 2015. Visit the TMDB. WTO-World Bank I-TIP Services Database: This database provides information on WTO Members’ commitments under the GATS, services commitments in regional trade agreements (RTAs), applied measures in services, and services trade statistics. Visit the I-TIP. WTO World Trade Report 2019: This edition of the WTO’s flagship report examines market and regulatory factors shaping the current and future landscape of services trade. Visit the World Trade Report.

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      Facilitación de las inversiones

      The relationship between trade and investment in the global economy is rapidly evolving as a result of technological developments, economic liberalization, and new ways of organizing production and distribution. Although trade and investment have always been interlinked, three related developments in the global economy — the spread of global value chains (GVCs), the growth of services, and the rise of digital trade or ‘e-commerce’ — are amplifying these dynamic links and making it more important for policymakers to respond in complementary and coherent ways. The Joint Statement Initiative (JSI) on Investment Facilitation for Development (IFD) at the WTO   Launched in December 2017 by a group of developing and least-developed WTO Members as ‘structured discussions’ under a ‘joint initiative’, negotiations are currently ongoing at the WTO among more than 110 participating Members (over 2/3 of the WTO Membership), with the objective to develop a multilateral Agreement on Investment Facilitation for Development. Since April 2021, the discussions advance on the basis of a single negotiating text (the so-called ‘Easter Text’). As stated in the latest Joint Statement on IFD endorsed by over 110 WTO Members in December 2021, the signatories aim at concluding the text-based negotiations on an IFD Agreement by the end of 2022. What is investment facilitation at the WTO?   The negotiations on investment facilitation at the WTO are inspired by the success of the WTO’s Trade Facilitation Agreement – and the recognition that in today’s integrated global economy, expanding investment flows, like trade flows, depends on simplifying, speeding up and coordinating processes, not just liberalizing policies. Indeed, in many cases the bottlenecks, inefficiencies, and uncertainties that investment facilitation seeks to address arise from unnecessary red tape, bureaucratic overlap, or out-of-date processes which serve no clear policy purpose but can be costly for everyone concerned.   Although there is no internationally agreed definition of ‘Investment facilitation’, it typically involves whole-of-government efforts to develop enabling regulatory and administrative frameworks for supporting both new and existing investors to comply with investment-related policy requirements. Some examples of investment facilitation mechanisms include public-private dialogue, investment aftercare services, and good governance laws.   In the framework of the WTO negotiations on IFD, facilitating investment is understood as creating a more transparent, efficient, investment-friendly business climate – by making it easier for domestic and foreign investors to invest, to conduct their day-to-day business, and to expand their existing investments, and for host and home governments to work cooperatively and in mutually beneficial ways to facilitate not only more, but also more sustainable investment. The focus is not on changing national investment policies, but on implementing and administering those policies more clearly, efficiently, predictably, and fairly, notably through increasing transparency of governments’ investment measures, streamlining administrative procedures, and enhancing cooperation among relevant agencies. However, it is clearly distinct from investment ‘liberalization’ (market access), investment ‘protection’ and Investor-State Dispute Settlement, all of which are explicitly excluded from the scope of the future WTO IFD Agreement.   It is to be noted that, as there is no internationally agreed definition of this concept, other International Organizations (IOs) working in the field of investment facilitation, such as OECD or UNCTAD may approach this concept in a slightly different way. However, all approaches have in common their focus on making it easier for investors to establish or expand their investments, as well as to conduct their day-to-day business in host countries.   Why does investment facilitation matter – and why does it matter particularly for MSMEs?   MSMEs often face many ground-level obstacles and impediments when attempting to invest abroad. Notably, the lack of easily accessible information on investment measures and the practical steps to invest in a given country/territory; language barriers; the lack of predictability of the regulatory environment; as well as the opacity and complexity of administrative procedures may often be overly burdensome and act as a deterrent in particular for MSMEs.  Indeed, unlike big firms, MSMEs often lack the capacity and/or the financial means to hire expert consultancy services to find out the information on the requirements and procedures in order to invest in a particular country/territory.   In this context, investment facilitation measures can benefit in particular MSMEs when investing abroad, through promoting greater transparency of regulations (including notably through online publication), streamlining and speeding up administrative procedures, building constructive relationships between investors and relevant authorities, and establishing amicable consultation/mediation mechanisms to prevent investment disputes from escalating.   As well, investment facilitation measures can also enable MSMEs to link up with foreign investors, notably in developing countries, through different channels. Indeed, enhancing the visibility of domestic firms, including MSMEs, is part of investment facilitation, notably through measures encouraging the establishment domestic supplier databases. Global policy dialogues framed within the Group of Twenty’s (G20) Guiding Principles for Global Investment Policymaking stress that investment facilitation provides avenues for small business to participate and move up in supply chains by leveraging on linkages to multinational companies.   WTO Members’ awareness of the importance of investment facilitation for MSMEs is well reflected in the draft negotiating document for an IFD Agreement, through provisions encouraging Members to review their investment measures with the view to make their regime more effective in addressing the specific needs of MSMEs, or to take into account, when preparing major investment measures, the potential impact of those measures on MSMEs. Actually, enhancing investment in as well as by MSMEs is one of the objectives of the future Agreement.   How can policymakers facilitate investment in, and by, MSMEs?   Several measures can be adopted to facilitate investment, particularly for MSMEs, at the national and international level. For instance, countries negotiate trade and investment agreements that may include provisions aiming at facilitating conditions for small businesses to access to or benefit from investment opportunities (see chapter 5 of WTO’s MSME-Related Language in Regional Trade Agreements). At the national level, countries seeking to facilitate investment may develop policies, institutions and financial facilities that support small businesses to engage in international trade and investment by increasing their access to capital, technology, and business networks.   More specifically, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) developed a Global Action Menu for Investment Facilitation, which provides 10 ‘action lines’ with a series of options for investment policymakers and government agencies for national and international policy measures on investment facilitation.   As well, to support the ongoing negotiations on an IFD Agreement in the WTO and enable negotiators and policymakers notably from developing and least-developed countries to better engage in them, the International Trade Centre (ITC), jointly with the German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS), has launched an ‘Investment Facilitation for Development (IF4D) project’. In this context, the ITC/IDOS have developed a toolkit for policymakers provides guidelines for developing investment facilitation regulations aimed at attaining development objectives, such as small business growth and competitiveness. This toolkit provides principles, action lines and examples for designing investment facilitation measures, and includes considerations for such measures to account in particular for small business needs. Some examples of investment facilitation policy measures in support of small business growth and development include: digital investment portals with lists of investor-ready small businesses; periodic impact assessments of the investment facilitation framework on small businesses; certification programs for developing small business linkages to customers, larger businesses and multinationals (see guide on voluntary sustainability standards); online platforms that streamline regulatory compliance for small businesses. For more information, see ITC/IDOS’s Policymaker Toolkit on Investment Facilitation for Development.   A general guidance is that  investment policies, regulations and procedures should be transparent, pragmatic, and friendly for small businesses to meet all necessary policy requirements for seizing investment opportunities and for developing business linkages to broader investment processes. By doing so, small businesses grow and are more able to contribute to the economy, increasing their productive and financial capacities to engage more in international trade and investment   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? WTO’s Investment Facilitation for Development Portal: The World Trade Organization (WTO) has a webpage dedicated to the IFD negotiations which provides information regarding the negotiations, including a factsheet and joint statements on IFD. Visit the WTO’s IFD webpage. ITC/IDOS Investment Facilitation for Development Policy Toolkit for Policymakers: ITC and DIE developed a policy toolkit for policymakers to support the WTO negotiations on IFD, as well as unilateral, bilateral and regional efforts to facilitate sustainable investment flows. The toolkit notably contains an inventory of measures to facilitate the flow of sustainable FDI. Visit the ITC/DIE’s Policy Toolkit for Policymakers. UNCTAD’s Investment Facilitation and Promotion: The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) supports countries to design investment facilitation regulations and institutions through a range of resources, including investment guides, advisory guidelines and policy frameworks. Visit this UNCTAD website. UNCTAD’s Investment Policy Hub: UNCTAD integrates policy frameworks, reviews and monitoring system on investment measures that can help to identify resources, trends and developments in investment facilitation. Visit the Hub. World Bank’s Investment Policy and Promotion: The World Bank offers a knowledge bank with strategies, examples and policy evidence on measures related to investment facilitation. Visit this World Bank website.   Where can policymakers access good practices and national examples? IDB-ITC-DIE’s What Foreign Investors Want: The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), International Trade Centre (ITC), and the German Development Institute (DIE) surveyed a number of active foreign investors in Latin America and the Caribbean and identified a key set of valuable investment facilitation measures for advancing development objectives under multilateral cooperation and national coordination. Visit this IDB-ITC-DIE report. OECD’s Investment Promotion and Facilitation Strategies: The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) provides an inventory of investment promotion and facilitation activities in the Middle East and North Africa region, which policymakers can use for benchmarking purposes. Visit this OECD website. OECD-UNIDO’s Integrating Southeast Asian SMEs in Global Value Chains: The OECD and the United Nations Industrial Organization (UNIDO) provide evidence on investment facilitation measures that can enable small businesses to develop business linkages to global supply chains. Visit this OECD-UNIDO report. UNCTAD’s World Investment Reports: UNCTAD publishes each year a World Investment Report which provides, among other, information on latest investment facilitation measures adopted. Visit UNCTAD’s 2022 World Investment Report. UNCTAD’s Investment Policy Monitor: UNCTAD provides the international investment community with country-specific, up-to-date information about the latest developments in foreign investment policies, notably on investment facilitation. Visit UNCTAD’s Investment Policy Monitor. UNCTAD’s Global Enterprise Registration (GER.co): UNCTAD lists and rates governments’ digital information portals and Single Windows, providing the weblinks to each of them. Visit the GER.co.

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      Pagos electrónicos transfronterizos

      ¿Qué son los pagos electrónicos? Los pagos electrónicos (e-payments) son transacciones digitales que los usuarios realizan para pagar bienes y servicios en Internet. Para ejecutar los pagos electrónicamente, las empresas y los particulares utilizan una variedad de métodos de pago electrónico que van desde los pagos con tarjeta y débito hasta las transferencias bancarias, el pago por móvil y las transacciones de la Cámara de Compensación Automatizada (ACH). Los pagos electrónicos son básicamente operaciones financieras habilitadas por dispositivos electrónicos, como ordenadores, teléfonos inteligentes o tabletas. Para más información sobre los modelos de pago electrónico y los tipos de transacciones, véase Electronic Payment Services and E-Commerce de la Cámara de Comercio Internacional (CCI) y la nota fintech 19/91 "The Rise of Digital Money" del Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI). ¿Por qué son importantes los pagos electrónicos para que las mipymes comercien? Los avances tecnológicos de los últimos años han permitido a las instituciones financieras y no financieras modernizar los métodos de pago que ofrecen a los usuarios. Estudios realizados por el Banco de Pagos Internacionales (BPI) y el Fondo Monetario Internacional han documentado el rápido crecimiento que están experimentando las tecnologías digitales en relación con los instrumentos tradicionales. Dado que las tecnologías digitales ofrecen instrumentos de pago más eficientes y menos costosos, las pequeñas empresas pueden beneficiarse del uso de opciones de pago electrónico para reducir la incertidumbre y los costes, especialmente en las transacciones comerciales internacionales. Otras ventajas que tienen los pagos electrónicos para las mipymes a la hora de participar en el comercio van desde la agilización de las actividades de pago transfronterizas en las aduanas hasta la reducción de los riesgos de fraude y de los onerosos gastos administrativos. Para más información sobre pagos electrónicos y transacciones en línea, consulte los siguientes artículos y documentos: El artículo del BPI sobre las tendencias de los pagos digitales, "Payments go (even more) digital"; El documento de trabajo del FMI WP/21/177 "Is Mobile Money Part of Money? Understanding the Trends and Measurement"; La Guía de aplicación para la facilitación del comercio de la Comisión Económica para Europa de las Naciones Unidas (CEPE); y El documento de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) "Trade finance for SMEs in the digital era". ¿Qué dificultades encuentran las mipymes a la hora de utilizar los pagos electrónicos? Aunque las tecnologías digitales han contribuido a la rápida expansión de los servicios financieros, los mercados de pagos electrónicos se enfrentan a retos normativos que obstaculizan la capacidad de las pequeñas empresas para tener un mayor acceso a las opciones de pago transfronterizas para el comercio. Un reciente estudio de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) ha demostrado que sólo una cuarta parte de los miembros de la OMC han liberalizado completamente los pagos transfronterizos en virtud de los compromisos del Acuerdo General sobre el Comercio de Servicios (AGCS). El Foro Económico Mundial (FEM) y la Cámara de Comercio Internacional (CCI) han identificado cuatro áreas clave en las que los responsables políticos podrían intervenir para reducir las fricciones en los mercados de pago electrónico: (a) barreras de acceso al mercado y trato nacional; (b) normas técnicas; (c) seguridad y confianza; y (d) coordinación y supervisión de políticas. Para más información, consulte la página del FEM Connecting Digital Economies y su libro blanco Addressing E-Payment Challenges in Global E-Commerce, así como el documento de la CCI Issues Brief on Electronic payment services and e-commerce. ¿Dónde puedo acceder a recursos sobre marcos y recomendaciones políticas? Recomendaciones políticas para los pagos transfronterizos: El FEM esboza las áreas clave en las que los responsables políticos pueden comprometerse y cooperar para reducir la complejidad de los mercados de pagos electrónicos. Visite Conectar las economías digitales: Recomendaciones políticas para los pagos transfronterizos. Alcance de los compromisos existentes en materia de servicios de pago electrónico: El FEM describe el estado actual de los compromisos multilaterales y las negociaciones plurilaterales sobre los aspectos de los servicios de pago electrónico y el comercio electrónico relacionados con el comercio. Lea el documento del FEM. Orientaciones de política de los consumidores sobre pagos móviles y en línea: La Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) ofrece una guía que los responsables políticos pueden utilizar para abordar cuestiones de protección de los consumidores al diseñar políticas dirigidas a los mercados de pagos móviles y en línea. Lea la guía de la OCDE. Marco analítico sobre tecnología financiera y regulación de pagos: El Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) documenta las experiencias internacionales recientes en la modernización de los marcos jurídicos y normativos de los servicios de pago. Enlace al marco del FMI. ¿Dónde puedo encontrar buenas prácticas y ejemplos nacionales? Guía de pagos electrónicos para países en desarrollo: El Centro de Comercio Internacional (CCI) ha elaborado una guía sobre reformas jurídicas y normativas y mejores prácticas que los responsables políticos pueden utilizar para abordar cuestiones de política de pago electrónico en los países en desarrollo. Visite la guía del CCI. Iniciativas de aceptación de pagos electrónicos: El Banco Mundial ha documentado una revisión de la literatura y ejemplos de países para orientar a los responsables políticos en el diseño de incentivos para fomentar la aceptación de pagos electrónicos. Acceda a la revisión del Banco Mundial.

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      Comercio transfronterizo sin papel

      What is cross-border paperless trade?   Paperless trade refers to the digitalization of information flows required to support goods and services crossing borders. By moving away from paper and opting for digital systems, governments and other stakeholders can speed up and facilitate trade (see guide on Trade Facilitation). Paperless trade can also yield significant environmental benefits by cutting out printing, dispatching, processing, exchanging, and the eventual discarding of vast quantities of paper documents. Paperless trade systems can be B2B, B2G or G2G and have various focuses (e.g. electronic customs declarations, electronic port management systems, electronic single windows).   Why is cross-border paperless trade important for MSMEs?   Paperless trade could significantly reduce trade costs and add up to major savings for traders, especially MSMEs. According to a study conducted by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and Coriolis Technology, digitizing transferable documents could boost MSME trade by 25% and lead to a 35% improvement in business efficiency. Paperless trade can reduce complexity by eliminating the need for copies of the same document, as well as making electronic and immediate transmission of those same documents possible. All of this can reduce the time and effort required, thereby assisting all traders, especially MSMEs, with managing trade-related procedures, such as trade finance requests and logistics operations.   What legal and technical aspects need to be considered when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems?   Legal issues that policy makers should consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include: Legal recognition of electronic transactions and documents: adopting a legal framework that recognizes electronic transactions and documents as equivalent to those based on paper is. The UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records (MLETR) provides useful international guidance in this respect. Trust services: for paperless trade systems to be interoperable, they need to rely on mechanisms guaranteeing an international alignment on what constitutes a valid trust service across borders. See the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures (MLES) for guidance on this issue. Data governance: When documents and information are exchanged between users using electronic systems or between electronic systems, the system must ensure confidentiality (i.e. information is private to only designated parties of the communications) and data integrity (i.e. the accuracy and consistency of data are maintained and assured over their entire life cycle). Liability and dispute management: trading parties and other concerned entities may suffer losses from the incorrect transmission or improper reuse of information and may seek compensation for those losses. Guaranteeing access to civil remedies for such losses and dispute settlement opportunities can help to enhance trust in paperless trade systems, and thereby support their adoption.   In addition to the legal framework, technical issues to consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include digital identity, electronic payments, data models and semantics, communication protocols, connectivity and data security. A list of standards for cross-border paperless trade that can be called upon when putting in place such systems can be found in the joint ICC-WTO Standards Toolkit for Cross-border Paperless Trade.   Detailed guidance on these various legal and technical issues is provided in the Cross-border Paperless Trade Toolkit developed by the WTO in collaboration with the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and UNCITRAL, as well as in the legal and technical readiness assessment guides and checklists developed by UNESCAP.   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? ICC’s Digital Standards Initiative (DSI): The International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) has developed a digital standards initiative. The DSI website includes a page for policymakerswith links to information related to adoption, economic analyses on the benefits of digitalization, and legislation related to the adoption of the MLETR. ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT’s Making the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement Work for SMEs: The International Trade Centre (ITC), the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and the United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade and Transport in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) provide guidance for policymakers to mainstream paperless measures and other trade facilitation components in strategies aimed at developing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Visit this ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT repor WTO-UNESCAP-UNCITRAL Cross-Border Paperless Trade Toolkit: The World Trade Organization (WTO), in collaboration with UNESCAP and UNCITRAL, developed a toolkit with technical and legal tools that can be called upon to adopt cross-border paperless trade systems. UN/CEFACT’s While Paper on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) has a policy document with frameworks, case studies and resources that can guide policymakers to align trade rules with trends in paperless trade. Visit this UN/CEFACT report. UNECE-UN/CEFACT’s Guides on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) have a number of papers and guides on paperless trade, including a 2018 white paper on paperless trade, a roadmap towards paperless trade, and trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation. UNESCAP’s Legal Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP has developed legal readiness assessment guides that countries can use to identify legal issue areas that are relevant to cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website. UNESCAP’s Technical Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP offers technical readiness assessment guides that countries can use to address technical issues on implementing electronic trade systems, paperless environment and actions needed for facilitating cross-border paperless trade data exchange. Visit this UNESCAP website. WCO’s Guide on Dematerialization & Paperless Processing: The World Customs Organization (WTO) has developed guidelines for customs authorities to support the use of electronic means for managing trade-related documents and reduce the hard copy requirements for such documents. Visit this WCO guide.   Where can policymakers access good practices and national examples? Single Window for Foreign Trade in Colombia: A Case Study on Trade Transactions: The International Trade Centre (ITC) has documented Colombia’s experience in establishing a national single window for foreign trade which has enable business to conduct paperless transaction with the support of information and communication technologies. Visit this ITC website. UNECE’s Regional Report on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation: The United Nations Commission for Europe (UNECE) provides an example of regional policy reviews on best practices and opportunities for cooperation in adopting paperless trade measures and other trade facilitation interventions. Visit this UNECE report. UNESCAP’s Readiness Assessments for Cross-Border Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific offers policy toolkits for assessing legal and technical readiness for cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website.

  6. Facilitación del comercio y acceso a los mercados

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      Facilitación del comercio

      ¿Qué es el Acuerdo sobre Facilitación del Comercio? De la Conferencia Ministerial de Bali de 2013 y tras casi diez años de negociaciones posteriores, surgió el Acuerdo sobre Facilitación del Comercio (AFC) de la OMC, que reconoce la necesidad de mejorar los procesos comerciales. Ratificado a principios de 2017, el AFC es un paso importante para facilitar los procedimientos fronterizos. Datos recientes de un análisis ex post realizado por la Comisión Económica y Social de las Naciones Unidas para Asia Oriental y el Pacífico (UNESCAP) sugieren que la aplicación del AFC de la OMC hasta la fecha (ya que se trata de un proceso gradual en la mayoría de las economías en desarrollo) ha contribuido a reducir los costes comerciales entre un 1 % y un 4 % de media. ¿Por qué es importante el AFC para las mipymes? Aunque los cambios propuestos por el AFC benefician a todos los comerciantes, se ha determinado que los comerciantes más pequeños, con menos recursos, son los que más se benefician. La Sección I del acuerdo enumera las distintas áreas y procesos que deben alinearse y modernizarse (véase la guía sobre comercio transfronterizo sin soporte de papel), con cambios centrados principalmente en dos áreas, la comunicación y los procedimientos fronterizos. El ITC ha destacado algunos artículos del AFC como especialmente relevantes para el comercio de las mipymes. Entre ellos se encuentran los artículos sobre la difusión de información sobre procedimientos comerciales a las PYME; los operadores autorizados y los criterios que no restringirán la participación de las PYME (véase Getting Down to Business o la guía sobre operadores económicos autorizados); el apoyo de las PYME a las ventanillas únicas (véase la guía sobre ventanillas únicas y portales nacionales); la reducción de tasas y cargos para las PYME y los envíos acelerados; y los comités nacionales sobre facilitación del comercio y las PYME (véase la guía sobre comités nacionales de facilitación del comercio). Para más detalles, véase Cómo hacer que el Acuerdo sobre Facilitación del Comercio de la OMC funcione para las PYME. ¿Dónde pueden los responsables políticos acceder a más recursos? Hay muchos recursos para los responsables políticos relacionados con la aplicación del AFC. A continuación se enumeran algunos de ellos; puede encontrar más en la biblioteca de recursos para responsables políticos. El ITC no sólo proporciona información sobre investigación y desarrollo de capacidades en su página web dedicada al programa de facilitación del comercio, sino que también ofrece un curso de aprendizaje electrónico para responsables de políticas sobre el acuerdo de facilitación del comercio de la OMC y un manual de formación sobre las PYME y el acuerdo de facilitación del comercio de la OMC. La página sobre facilitación del comercio de la OCDE contiene enlaces útiles a investigaciones, explicaciones en vídeo y herramientas con información sobre la aplicación del acuerdo y los retos relacionados. Los recursos de la Organización Mundial de Aduanas (OMA) sobre facilitación del comercio incluyen una guía sobre comités nacionales de facilitación del comercio y hojas informativas sobre temas específicos como resoluciones anticipadas, recursos en asuntos aduaneros, ventanilla única, gestión de riesgos/control posterior al despacho y procedimiento simplificado/personas autorizadas, todos ellos accesibles aquí. La OMA también ha elaborado numerosas guías y manuales relacionados con la facilitación del comercio, disponibles a través de las Herramientas de la OMA. Los recursos de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) incluyen la página web sobre facilitación del comercio, que contiene información sobre el propio acuerdo, así como enlaces a vídeos y publicaciones. Entre los recursos adicionales enlazados en la página se incluyen: El sitio web específico del Mecanismo para el Acuerdo sobre Facilitación del Comercio, que incluye información sobre el propio acuerdo, recursos y estudios de casos para cada disposición del AFC, numerosos recursos generales, como los de la página web del Mecanismo para el AFC de la OMC, así como enlaces a cursos de aprendizaje electrónico para responsables de la formulación de políticas proporcionados por la OMC, el BID, el CCI, la CESPAP y otros. La base de datos sobre acuerdos de facilitación del comercio, con gráficos sobre la situación del AFC y el estado de aplicación de los compromisos por parte de los miembros de la OMC. ¿Dónde pueden acceder los responsables políticos a buenas prácticas o ejemplos nacionales? La guía del ITC, la UNCECE y la UNCTAD titulada Getting Down to Business, Making the Most of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement incluye información sobre buenas prácticas y otra información útil sobre la aplicación. El simulador de indicadores de facilitación del comercio de la OCDE y la herramienta Compare su país proporcionan a los gobiernos una base para priorizar las acciones de facilitación del comercio e identificar los puntos fuertes y débiles en la facilitación del comercio. La UNCTAD también ofrece un Rastreador de reformas para supervisar las reformas de facilitación del comercio.

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      Operadores económicos autorizados

      What are authorized economic operators (AEOs)?   AEOs are businesses and other entities certified by customs authorities to trade goods across borders under international supply chain security standards. An AEO status can provide increased confidence for customs authorities, trade partners, and customers. This status also certifies goods to obtain priority clearance with customs and be subject to fewer physical and documentation checks. Products shipped by companies with AEO status are also given priority as AEO consignments if they are selected for controls at the border. For additional information on AEOs, national examples and implementation guidance, see the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s (UNECE) page on Authorized Economic Operator (AEO).   Why does an AEO status matter for trade?    With international trade increasing over the years, cross-border movement of goods has become a complex process for customs authorities to manage. There are increased security standards in many economies, along with an increase of small, low-value shipments. In response, international guidelines on AEO programs were adopted to streamline clearance processes conducted by customs and border authorities and reduce delivery times in cross-border trade transactions. The World Customs Organization (WCO) published an AEO Compendium in 2020 to provide policymakers with an overview of existing AEO programs around the world and a list of the frameworks that underpin  AEO-related standards.    How can AEO status benefit MSMEs and what are the potential challenges?    MSMEs can apply for AEO status at the customs authorities in their countries (if available). According to the World Customs Organization, there are currently 97 operational AEO programs worldwide, with 20 more under development (See the WCO AEO Compendium 2020 Edition for more information on national AEO programmes). Although different governments have different requirements for becoming an AEO, broadly a company must comply with national domestic registration laws, abide by customs and taxation requirements, maintain appropriate records, and practice required safety and security measures. Sometimes these compliance requirements can be burdensome and the process to attain AEO status difficult. According to the International Trade Centre’s (ITC) trade facilitation guide, “it is crucial to design a mechanism which encourages SMEs’ participation in authorized operator schemes.” Further, cooperation on AEO agreements and a mutual recognition of AEOs themselves could facilitate MSME participation in these programs. For additional guidance on the implications of AEO programs for MSMEs, see WCO’s The Authorized Economic Operator and the Small and Medium Enterprise.   Where can policymakers access more resources? WCO SAFE Package: The above-mentioned SAFE package compiles a set of standards, frameworks and tools developed by the WCO over time to secure and facilitate global trade. These are designed for building capacity in trade facilitation matters and guiding countries in the implementation of AEO programs. Visit the WCO site. WCO Authorized Economic Operators (AEO) Implementation Guidance: Presents a 9-phase approach to implement an AEO program under the SAFE package, which aims to provide customs administrations with guidance on AEO-related matters. Visit the WCO website. International Trade Centre: The ITC provides an implementation guide for the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Trade Facilitation Agreement, including information on facilitation measures for authorized operators. Visit the ITC website.   Where can policymakers access good practices or national examples? WCO’s Compendium of Authorized Economic Operator Programmes: This compendium features a list of operational AEO programmes and AEO programmes under development across world regions. Visit the WCO site. APEC’s Integrating SMEs in Authorized Economic Operator Certification: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) secretariat documents best practices and recommendations for policymakers and businesses to seize trade facilitation opportunities from implementing AEO programs. Visit the APEC website. COMCEC’s Authorized Economic Operator Programs in the Islamic Countries: The Standing Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (COMCEC) offers an analysis on AEO program awareness, design, and implementation in three best practices in the world, and among member states of the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Visit the COMCEC site. International Trade Centre: The ITC has documented best practices in AEO programs that have led to benefits for businesses and customs authorities in streamlining trade-related procedures. These are described in their study Faster Customs, Faster Trade.  Mexico’s AEO Programme: The Inter-American Development Bank has documented evidence on the impact that AEO certification has provided to exporting firms. Visit the IDB site. WTO Informal Working Group on MSMEs: Following recommendations submitted by business associations, the Informal Working Group on MSMEs prepared a consolidated document that includes the topic “AEO programmes.”

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      Envíos urgentes y envíos de bajo valor

      ¿Qué son los envíos urgentes y los envíos de poco valor? Con la llegada del comercio electrónico a la economía digital, la Unión Postal Universal (UPU) ha reconocido la creciente "paqueterización" del comercio. De hecho, más del 80% de las mercancías transfronterizas compradas en línea son pequeños paquetes de hasta 2 kilogramos de peso, y la mayoría de esos paquetes (aproximadamente el 70%) se entregan a través del sistema postal. Esto ha modificado las necesidades de la tramitación aduanera, ya que cada vez son más los envíos realizados por particulares o pequeños vendedores con capacidades diferentes. ¿Por qué es importante para las mipymes? Es posible que las mipymes no tengan los conocimientos necesarios para cumplir los requisitos aduaneros o que se vean disuadidas de entrar en el comercio debido al papeleo y los requisitos necesarios para enviar paquetes comerciales al extranjero. Poner la información sobre impuestos y aranceles a disposición de los interesados y facilitar su comprensión para calcular los costes previstos es un primer paso en el proceso. ¿Qué pueden hacer los responsables políticos? Algunos gobiernos han introducido nuevos enfoques para hacer frente a los envíos de bajo valor. Por ejemplo, Australia aplica un impuesto sobre bienes y servicios -conocido como GST- que adopta la forma de un impuesto de base amplia del 10% aplicado a las ventas de la mayoría de bienes, servicios y otros artículos de consumo interno. Canadá ha desarrollado un sistema genérico armonizado para las importaciones domésticas, que se ha propuesto como modelo para desarrollar una interfaz de programación de aplicaciones estándar con rúbricas de clasificación estándar para armonizar los códigos de identificación de los envíos de bajo valor. Otro grupo de países ha decidido aplicar una tarifa plana de importación a un nivel razonable que sustituye a todos los derechos e impuestos. Basándose en estos planteamientos, la Global Express Association (GEA) ha conceptualizado tres amplias opciones que los responsables políticos pueden considerar para recaudar impuestos y aranceles sobre los envíos de bajo valor. Para más información, consulte la Propuesta de la GEA sobre Recaudación de Impuestos/Derechos sobre Envíos Importados de Bajo Valor. ¿Dónde pueden los responsables políticos acceder a más recursos? La Unión Postal Universal dispone de una serie de recursos, incluida una aplicación de teléfono móvil para la presentación de datos electrónicos anticipados (DEA) para las declaraciones de aduanas, junto con directrices y guías, recomendaciones y normas. ¿Dónde pueden acceder los responsables políticos a buenas prácticas o ejemplos nacionales? El sistema GST de Australia se aplica tanto a los bienes importados en la economía como a la producción nacional. Aquí se explica cómo funciona el sistema GST de Australia y aquí se explica cómo importar bienes con GST, junto con una presentación sobre la experiencia del comercio electrónico australiano. El sistema genérico armonizado de Canadá para las importaciones domésticas se describe en la propuesta de GEA sobre la recaudación de impuestos/derechos sobre los envíos importados de bajo valor. También hay una presentación sobre la política canadiense de envíos de bajo valor. El Marco Integrado Mejorado (MIM) y la UPU, junto con la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD), han puesto en marcha un proyecto en Vanuatu para facilitar el despacho aduanero eficaz de los paquetes postales mediante el intercambio de información previa a la llegada y salida. También se han identificado otros 23 países menos adelantados (PMA) en los que pueden establecerse rápidamente las interfaces nacionales entre el Sistema de Declaración de Aduanas (SDD) de la UPU y SIDUNEA (un sistema informatizado de gestión aduanera) de la UNCTAD. Para más información, visite las Noticias sobre Comercio para el Desarrollo del FEI. Nueva Zelanda, al igual que Australia, también cuenta con un sistema GST. Más información sobre el GST para las empresas extranjeras en Nueva Zelanda aquí. La UPU publica estudios de casos y buenas prácticas, como Easy Export para desarrollar un sistema de exportación simplificado y fácil para las MIPYME. Creado originalmente para Brasil, Easy Export se aplica ahora también en otras economías, como Túnez y Marruecos.

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      Ventanillas únicas y portales nacionales

      What is a national single window?   A national single window refers to a facility where actors involved in trade and transport share standardized information and documents to fulfill regulatory requirements related to trade. Single windows allow traders and government agencies to exchange information regarding trade procedures such as permits and licenses, certificates and necessary approvals, customs clearance, and port exit. The World Customs Organization (WCO) provides more information in its document entitled “Building a Single Window Environment“.   In the absence of a single window, businesses typically must submit the same documents to each relevant authority, which represents significant costs. National single windows simplify procedures and provide businesses with a single point for submitting all required information to all authorities involved in export, import, and transit requirements. This approach can significantly reduce costs, thereby benefitting MSMEs. For more information, see the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s (UNECE) Recommendation No. 33 on Establishing a Single Window and the International Trade Centre’s (ITC) SMEs and the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement.   Which services do national single windows provide?    Single windows can provide a range of services depending on their design and coverage. Mostly, they comprise electronic platforms where business users register to submit customs declarations and applications for import and export licenses and licenses for strategic products. The ITC has developed a training manual for policymakers to understand the scope of national single window services in relation to measures aiming to facilitate trade.   Types of single windows   The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe has described three general models for single windows on its Recommendation No. 33 on Establishing a Single Window: Single authority: This authority receives paper or electronic information that it later disseminates to the relevant government authorities. The single authority also coordinates actions to facilitate the logistical chain. Single automated system: This system integrates the electronic collection, use, dissemination, and storage of trade-related data disseminating the required information to all relevant authorities. Automated information transaction system: This system enables traders to submit electronic trade declarations to the relevant authorities for processing files and obtaining approvals in a single application.   How can policymakers support small businesses to use national single windows?    The ITC provides a toolkit that policymakers can consider to support SMEs through trade facilitation reforms, including actions on streamlining national single windows. The toolkit offers two policy recommendations in mainstreaming small business needs to the design of national single windows. The World Customs Organization (WCO) also provides a framework on modern customs administration that suggests principles for regulatory authorities in coordinating border management procedures to cut time and costs involved in implementing single window requirements.   Going beyond single windows: Integrated Services for MSMEs in International Trade (ISMIT)   The UN Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) advocates for the establishment of national ISMIT platforms. An ISMIT platform is a single submission portal (SSP), which provides access to various services to trade internationally and is complementary to a single window. It goes beyond regulatory procedures covered by single windows and provides services such as financing, logistics, insurance etc. ISMIT platforms offer benefits both to government agencies, which can receive high quality and reliable information submitted according to the standards and formats required by the relevant government agency, and to MSMEs by reducing the time, risk and cost of customs clearance, logistics, and other related activities.   For more detailed information, see the UNECE ISMIT white paper.   Where can policymakers access more resources? Building a Single Window Environment: The WCO provides a compendium of frameworks, guidelines, and tools that policymakers can use to design a national single window. Visit the WCO website. A WCO Guidance on National Committees on Trade Facilitation: This guidance presents resources and action plan examples on single window environments and data harmonization for national committees on trade facilitation. Visit the WCO website. Single Window Planning and Implementation Guide: The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) offers a guide to assist policymakers in planning, developing, and managing single window systems. Visit the UNESCAP website.   Where can policymakers access good practices or national examples? Morocco’s PortNet is an example of a national single window platform. For information on the design and implementation process, see this 2017 brief on PortNet in Morocco. Singapore’s Single Window TradeNet System: Singapore has a single integrated permit processing system that counts with document services centres specialized in preparing and submitting trade documents on behalf of small businesses. Access TradeNet. Single Window for Trade Facilitation: UNESCAP has compiled best practices of single window systems developed in Asia and the Pacific. Visit the UNESCAP website. Senegal’s Experience in Single Windows: Senegal created a national single window (known as ORBUS) in 2004. It designed a single window environment with the broader objective of enabling paperless trade through complementary measures on digital signature and electronic interconnectivity. Learn more about ORBUS. WCO case studies and other information: The WCO maintains information on single window initiatives that are currently at various stages of implementation. Visit the WCO website. Informal Working Group on MSMEs: After reviewing recommendations submitted by business associations, the Informal Working Group on MSMEs  prepared a consolidation of recommendations in 2019 that includes the topic “single windows.”

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      Normas de origen

      What are rules of origin?   Rules of origin (ROOs) are a set of laws, regulations, and administrative procedures that countries impose to determine where an imported product comes from. At first glance, where a product comes from should be a simple question to answer – wherever it was made. But digging deeper it becomes more challenging: is a product from the place where the materials originated? Is it from where the product was first put together? What if it has many parts all from different locations? And which processing step determines where the product was made?  ROOs provide governments with the criteria to identify whether imports are subject to trade measures such as: most-favoured-nation treatment or preferential treatment from a regional trade agreement; trade remedies; origin marking requirements; quantitative restrictions or tariff quotas; government procurement; and trade statistics. For more information, see the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Technical Information on Rules of Origin.   What are the different types of origin criteria?   When making their declarations to customs, businesses have to present a proof of origin which determines whether their imported products are subject to preferential or non-preferential market access terms. If imported goods are manufactured in multiple countries, the country of origin would be ascertained in accordance with the criteria defined in the rules of origin. The WTO Agreement on Rules of Origin distinguishes two types of rules of origin: Preferential origin: This determines whether products are eligible for preferential (lower or zero) tariffs and other benefits provided under preferential regimes, either in the context of trade agreements or unilateral preferential schemes. Qualifying under preferential origin may require imports to be completely or partially produced in a country that is a beneficiary from the preferential regime under consideration, according to its specific conditions identified. In some cases, however, materials from certain third parties may also qualify as originating. Information on rules of origin and origin provisions in trade agreements can be retrieved in the Rules of Origin Facilitator, an initiative developed jointly by the WTO and the International Trade Centre (ITC). For identifying rules of origin provisions in non-reciprocal preferential schemes, see the WTO’s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTA) database. Non-preferential origin: This is not linked to trade agreements and may determine whether businesses have to comply with non-tariff requirements such as trade remedies and quotas (see guide on non-tariff measures). Not all countries apply specific legislation related to non-preferential rules of origin, and negotiations on adopting harmonized non-preferential rules of origin are still ongoing. The WTO’s Rules of Origin Section provides a list of WTO Members that have notified their non-preferential rules of origin.   What role do rules of origin play in trade policy?   Rules of origin are used to determine the country of origin of goods and shall not, as specified in the WTO Agreement on ROOs, create restrictive, distorting or disruptive effects on international trade. For example, determining rules of origin may be required to verify whether certain products are subject to measures aimed to correct unfair trade practices, protect local industries, or grant preferential access to imports from developing countries or beneficiary countries in regional cooperation agreements. Other reasons that may justify the use of rules of origin range from administering discriminatory government procurement procedures to controlling foreign market access to implementing environmental or sanitary measures. The World Customs Organization (WCO) offers two resources that review technical aspects of rules of origin in a comprehensive manner. These resources are the Rules of Origin – Handbook and the WCO Origin Compendium.   What can policymakers do?   Complying with rules of origin can require a significant amount of resources, especially when these rules vary depending on the countries involved. With the growing number of preferential trade agreements between different groups, it is important to consider streamlining rules of origin and origin procedures whenever practicable to help businesses of any size comply. For more information, see the International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) Business Recommendations on Rules of Origin in Preferential Trade Agreements.   Where can policymakers access more resources? The WCO’s Rules of Origin Handbook and Compendium: This handbook and compendium provides a comprehensive review of frameworks that underpin  the correct application of rules of origin. Access this WCO resource. The WCO’s Training Packages: The WCO offers e-learning courses on rules of origin for international trade professionals, companies, and universities, as well as training opportunities for customs administrations and private sector entities. Visit the WCO website. The WTO Agreement on Rules of Origin: This provides links to official documents and related resources concerning the WTO rules that apply to this area. Visit the WTO website.   Where can policymakers access good practices or national examples? European Commission’s Guidance on Rules of Origin: The European Union provides a number of resources with guidance materials on how economic operators and customs authorities can understand, apply and communicate rules on the determination of preferential and non-preferential origin of goods. Visit the European Commission Quick Guide to Working with Rules of Origin and the European Commission Rules of Origin Webpage. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) Rules of Origin and Origin Procedures Applicable to Exports from Least Developed Countries: This resource examines the rules of origin landscape  and what it means for least developed countries. Visit the UNCTAD website. Informal Working Group on MSMEs: Drawing from recommendations submitted by business associations, the Informal Working Group on MSMEs  prepared a consolidated document that includes the topic of rules of origin.

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      Comités nacionales de facilitación del comercio

      What are National Committees on Trade Facilitation (NCTFs)?   National Committees on Trade Facilitation (NCTFs), also sometimes referred to as National Trade Facilitation Committees (NTFCs), are government bodies or mechanisms tasked with the responsibility to facilitate both domestic coordination and implementation of the provisions included in the World Trade Organization (WTO)’s Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). The TFA entered into force on February 2017. Since then, the agreement has been representing a framework for WTO members to facilitate the movement, release and clearance of goods, including goods in transit. TFA’s article 23.2 frames the overall mandate of NCTFs.   What are the key objectives of NCTFs?   While the overall mandate of NCTFs has been framed under TFA’s article 23.2, these committees have been existent across countries to oversee the implementation of trade facilitation reforms enacted since the 1960s. NCTFs across TFA parties share the function of coordinating stakeholders playing a role in implementing the TFA provisions. However, their scope and frequency of work may differ according to political, management and leadership conditions in which they operate. Some of the activities reported by NCTFs include: advising government and making recommendations; collecting and disseminating information on trade facilitation and awareness raising; monitoring technical assistance projects and programmes; negotiating, promoting and monitoring new trade facilitation agreements; and organizing training sessions and capacity building among others.   Why do NTFCs matter for MSMEs?   The World Customs Organization (WCO)’s Guidance for National Committees on Trade Facilitation stresses that including micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) among the committee stakeholders is part of the preconditions for implementing a successful and effective NCTF. As many of the TFA provisions affect the ability of MSMEs to benefit from simplified trade, transit and customs procedures, enabling MSMEs to have representation in NCTFs is vital for ensuring a full compliance with TFA’s article 23.2 and other related articles, such as article 2. The latter emphasizes that all stakeholders affected by customs concerns should be consulted for trade regulatory developments. What can policymakers do?   MSMEs lag behind larger firms in skills, knowledge and access to information, resources and contact to have their voice heard and participate in trade-related policymaking processes. Policymakers can play a role in making the case and creating space for MSMEs to channel their trade-related concerns through NCTFs. The International Trade Centre (ITC)’s Toolkit for Policymakers for Supporting SMEs through Trade Facilitation Reforms outlines key actions policymakers can take to support MSME inclusion in NCTFs including: Developing a communications plan for NCTFs to consult with MSMEs well before trade-related policies and procedures are developed or changed; assessing SME needs and concerns through various information channels; ensuring MSME participation in consultations and feedback; and reviewing MSME impacts of trade policies and procedures.   Where can policymakers access more resources? ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT’s Making the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement Work for SMEs: The International Trade Centre (ITC), the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), and the United Nations Network of Experts on Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) have compiled programmes, measures and interventions that can support the involvement of MSMEs in NCTFs. Visit this ITC-UNESCAP-UNEExT report. UNCTAD’s Resources for National Trade Facilitation Committees (NTFCs): The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) offers resources for policymakers to connect NTFCs with networks, learning platforms and informational tools. Visit this UNCTAD’s website. UNCTAD’s Database of NTFCs: Collects information metrics to assess the performance of NTFCs individually and globally. Visit this UNCTAD database. UNCTAD’s e-Learning for NTFCs: Assists policymakers in understanding key concepts, frameworks and analytical tools on trade facilitation matters. Visit this UNCTAD website. UNCTAD’s Sustainability Score for NTFCs: Assesses the probability of NTFCs to be sustainable over time by analysing several factors, such as scope of work, official set up and membership. Visit this UNCTAD webpage. UNTAD’s Empowerment Programme for NTFCs: Provides capacity building for NTFCs to undertake their mandate and implement trade facilitation reforms that are aligned to the WTO TFA provisions. Visit this UNCTAD webpage. UNCTAD’s Reform Tracker for NTFCs: Is a project management tool for supporting NTFC stakeholders to monitor progress of trade facilitation reforms and to facilitate coordination matters. Visit this UNCTAD Tracker. WTO’s Trade Facilitation Agreement Database: The World Trade Organization (WTO) manages a database that monitors the progress made by WTO members in implementing the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement. Visit this WTO database.   Where can policymakers access good practices or national examples? UNCTAD’s Map on Trade Facilitation Bodies: The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) provides a map with country-level information on NTFCs that have been established up to date and provides key features that characterizes them. Visit this UNCTAD Map. Presentations delivered at the First UNCTAD International Forum for NTFCs: UNCTAD organizes an international forum where country representatives can present on experiences on establishing NTFCs. Visit this UNCTAD website. WTO’s Current Practices and Challenges on NCTFs: The World Trade Organization (WTO) has compiled national experiences, best practices and recommendations with respect to the establishment and functioning of NCTFs. Visit this WTO report.

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      Comercio transfronterizo sin papel

      What is cross-border paperless trade?   Paperless trade refers to the digitalization of information flows required to support goods and services crossing borders. By moving away from paper and opting for digital systems, governments and other stakeholders can speed up and facilitate trade (see guide on Trade Facilitation). Paperless trade can also yield significant environmental benefits by cutting out printing, dispatching, processing, exchanging, and the eventual discarding of vast quantities of paper documents. Paperless trade systems can be B2B, B2G or G2G and have various focuses (e.g. electronic customs declarations, electronic port management systems, electronic single windows).   Why is cross-border paperless trade important for MSMEs?   Paperless trade could significantly reduce trade costs and add up to major savings for traders, especially MSMEs. According to a study conducted by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and Coriolis Technology, digitizing transferable documents could boost MSME trade by 25% and lead to a 35% improvement in business efficiency. Paperless trade can reduce complexity by eliminating the need for copies of the same document, as well as making electronic and immediate transmission of those same documents possible. All of this can reduce the time and effort required, thereby assisting all traders, especially MSMEs, with managing trade-related procedures, such as trade finance requests and logistics operations.   What legal and technical aspects need to be considered when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems?   Legal issues that policy makers should consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include: Legal recognition of electronic transactions and documents: adopting a legal framework that recognizes electronic transactions and documents as equivalent to those based on paper is. The UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records (MLETR) provides useful international guidance in this respect. Trust services: for paperless trade systems to be interoperable, they need to rely on mechanisms guaranteeing an international alignment on what constitutes a valid trust service across borders. See the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures (MLES) for guidance on this issue. Data governance: When documents and information are exchanged between users using electronic systems or between electronic systems, the system must ensure confidentiality (i.e. information is private to only designated parties of the communications) and data integrity (i.e. the accuracy and consistency of data are maintained and assured over their entire life cycle). Liability and dispute management: trading parties and other concerned entities may suffer losses from the incorrect transmission or improper reuse of information and may seek compensation for those losses. Guaranteeing access to civil remedies for such losses and dispute settlement opportunities can help to enhance trust in paperless trade systems, and thereby support their adoption.   In addition to the legal framework, technical issues to consider when putting in place cross-border paperless trade systems include digital identity, electronic payments, data models and semantics, communication protocols, connectivity and data security. A list of standards for cross-border paperless trade that can be called upon when putting in place such systems can be found in the joint ICC-WTO Standards Toolkit for Cross-border Paperless Trade.   Detailed guidance on these various legal and technical issues is provided in the Cross-border Paperless Trade Toolkit developed by the WTO in collaboration with the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and UNCITRAL, as well as in the legal and technical readiness assessment guides and checklists developed by UNESCAP.   Where can policymakers access resources on policy frameworks, guidelines and tools? ICC’s Digital Standards Initiative (DSI): The International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) has developed a digital standards initiative. The DSI website includes a page for policymakerswith links to information related to adoption, economic analyses on the benefits of digitalization, and legislation related to the adoption of the MLETR. ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT’s Making the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement Work for SMEs: The International Trade Centre (ITC), the United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and the United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade and Transport in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) provide guidance for policymakers to mainstream paperless measures and other trade facilitation components in strategies aimed at developing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Visit this ITC-UNESCAP-UNNExT repor WTO-UNESCAP-UNCITRAL Cross-Border Paperless Trade Toolkit: The World Trade Organization (WTO), in collaboration with UNESCAP and UNCITRAL, developed a toolkit with technical and legal tools that can be called upon to adopt cross-border paperless trade systems. UN/CEFACT’s While Paper on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) has a policy document with frameworks, case studies and resources that can guide policymakers to align trade rules with trends in paperless trade. Visit this UN/CEFACT report. UNECE-UN/CEFACT’s Guides on Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) have a number of papers and guides on paperless trade, including a 2018 white paper on paperless trade, a roadmap towards paperless trade, and trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation. UNESCAP’s Legal Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP has developed legal readiness assessment guides that countries can use to identify legal issue areas that are relevant to cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website. UNESCAP’s Technical Readiness Assessment Guide: UNESCAP offers technical readiness assessment guides that countries can use to address technical issues on implementing electronic trade systems, paperless environment and actions needed for facilitating cross-border paperless trade data exchange. Visit this UNESCAP website. WCO’s Guide on Dematerialization & Paperless Processing: The World Customs Organization (WTO) has developed guidelines for customs authorities to support the use of electronic means for managing trade-related documents and reduce the hard copy requirements for such documents. Visit this WCO guide.   Where can policymakers access good practices and national examples? Single Window for Foreign Trade in Colombia: A Case Study on Trade Transactions: The International Trade Centre (ITC) has documented Colombia’s experience in establishing a national single window for foreign trade which has enable business to conduct paperless transaction with the support of information and communication technologies. Visit this ITC website. UNECE’s Regional Report on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation: The United Nations Commission for Europe (UNECE) provides an example of regional policy reviews on best practices and opportunities for cooperation in adopting paperless trade measures and other trade facilitation interventions. Visit this UNECE report. UNESCAP’s Readiness Assessments for Cross-Border Paperless Trade: The United Nations Economic Commission for East Asia and the Pacific offers policy toolkits for assessing legal and technical readiness for cross-border paperless trade. Visit this UNESCAP website.

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      Identificación de las empresas y el Identificador de Personas Jurídicas

      ¿Qué es un identificador de persona jurídica (IPJ)? Un IPJ es un código alfanumérico de 20 caracteres que proporciona una identificación clara y exclusiva a las empresas y otras entidades que participan en operaciones financieras (para una descripción detallada del código en sí, consulte la página web de la Global Legal Entity Identifier Foundation). Contiene información sobre las estructuras de propiedad de las empresas que los reguladores exigen para evaluar los riesgos financieros y promover la integridad del mercado. Los IPJ forman parte de las normas mundiales que se basan en la alta calidad de los datos para mejorar la transparencia en los mercados. Puede encontrar más información sobre qué es un IPJ en la página web de la Global Legal Entity Identifier Foundation y en LEI Worldwide. Tras la crisis financiera de 2008, los reguladores reconocieron la dificultad de identificar a las partes de una operación en todos los mercados, productos y regiones (véase el artículo del Consejo de Estabilidad Financiera sobre el IPJ). El IPJ se convirtió en una respuesta reguladora a esta cuestión, permitiendo la incorporación de información clave para las personas jurídicas en una operación financiera (incluida la digital) sobre "quién es quién" y "quién es dueño de quién". Aunque el IPJ se adoptó inicialmente para su uso en el comercio de derivados financieros, tiene otras muchas aplicaciones, como la emisión de préstamos y la identificación de empresas. Para más información sobre la historia del IPJ, consulte el sitio web del Consejo de Estabilidad Financiera, junto con SWIFT y este informe de McKinsey. ¿Por qué es importante el IPJ para las MIPYME y el comercio? Aunque el IPJ no es un requisito legal, tiene varias ventajas para las pequeñas empresas. Por un lado, el IPJ reduce los costes de captación de clientes, que a veces son prohibitivos para captar nuevos clientes MIPYME. Para la financiación del comercio, los IPJ pueden acelerar el acceso a la financiación mediante una mejor identificación y pueden permitir una tramitación más rápida de las cartas de crédito. Los IPJ también ayudan con los requisitos de CSC (Conozca a su Cliente), que son directrices de servicios financieros que exigen que se verifique la identidad. Trabajar con otros que tengan un número de IPJ también puede proporcionar a las MIPYME seguridad a la hora de conocer a sus proveedores y socios y de hacer negocios en el extranjero. Por último, los IPJ pueden ayudar a las MIPYME a cumplir la normativa internacional, asegurar su identidad de marca y mejorar sus requisitos de información sobre el cumplimiento. Encontrará más información en LEI Worldwide. ¿Cómo pueden ayudar los responsables políticos? Los gobiernos y los responsables políticos tienen un papel que desempeñar a la hora de fomentar la adopción del IPJ, concretamente concienciando de que esta herramienta existe y tiene usos concretos. No sólo es importante comprender que se ha desarrollado una solución de identidad como el IPJ, sino que también es importante dar a conocer las formas en que puede beneficiar a las MIPYME reduciendo sus costes de transacción y aumentando su acceso a los mercados financieros. ¿Dónde pueden los responsables políticos obtener más información sobre los marcos políticos y las directrices? Por qué una identidad de confianza es el primer paso hacia la inclusión financiera de las PYME: Esta publicación subraya el papel que pueden desempeñar las identidades digitales de confianza para aumentar la inclusión financiera de las pequeñas empresas. Acceda a esta página en el sitio web de la GLEIF. El IPJ en los Certificados Digitales: La Global Legal Entity Identifier Foundation ofrece una serie de recursos que los responsables políticos y las autoridades reguladoras podrían utilizar para integrar el IPJ en los certificados y sellos, cuando se emitan en un contexto empresarial. Visite el sitio web de la GLEIF. Revisión temática sobre la implantación del Identificador de Personas Jurídicas: Esta publicación presenta una revisión inter pares sobre los avances en la implantación del IPJ en distintos países y sectores realizada por el Consejo de Estabilidad Financiera (CEF). Visite el sitio web del CEF. ¿Dónde pueden acceder los responsables políticos a las mejores prácticas y ejemplos nacionales? Recomendación sobre el uso del Identificador de Personas Jurídicas (LEI) en los países de la UE: Esta recomendación describe los elementos de información exigidos por la normativa de la UE para obtener un código preLEI con fines informativos. Visite la Autoridad Bancaria Europea (ABE) para obtener más información. El IPJ: La clave para desbloquear la inclusión financiera en los países en desarrollo: Este recurso identifica las formas en que las instituciones financieras de los países en desarrollo pueden aumentar la inclusión financiera proporcionando capacidad a las pequeñas empresas para adoptar el IPJ. Proporciona ejemplos específicos de África. Acceda a este recurso en la página web de la GLEIF. Cómo los Identificadores de Personas Jurídicas transformarán las pequeñas empresas en Asia: Este recurso ofrece información sobre el papel que podrían desempeñar los IPJ para ayudar a las pequeñas empresas a aumentar su acceso a la financiación y su participación en las cadenas de suministro. Visite la página web del Banco Asiático de Desarrollo (BAD).

¿Qué está sucediendo a nivel internacional y regional en materia de políticas comerciales para las mipymes?

  1. Panorama de la política comercial de las MIPYME en las organizaciones internacionales

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      ¿Qué está sucediendo a nivel internacional y regional en materia de políticas comerciales para las mipymes?

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      Centro de Comercio Internacional

      El Centro de Comercio Internacional (CCI) es una agencia conjunta de las Naciones Unidas y la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC), cuya misión se centra específicamente en las pequeñas y medianas empresas. Tiene su sede en Ginebra (Suiza) y dispone de diversas herramientas y recursos para responsables políticos y PYME. Entre ellos se incluyen los siguientes de su página web Market Info & Tools. Aprendizaje electrónico La Academia de Comercio de las PYME ofrece formación sobre diversos temas comerciales para responsables de la formulación de políticas y PYME, incluidos temas como el Acuerdo sobre Facilitación del Comercio de la OMC o cómo desarrollar contenidos de comercio electrónico. Herramientas de análisis de mercado Estas son las herramientas del ITC para las MIPYME y los responsables políticos. Proporcionan información sobre estadísticas de exportación e importación de más de 220 países y territorios sobre unos 5.300 productos comercializados internacionalmente. Estas herramientas incluyen: Mapa comercial Mapa de acceso al mercado Mapa de inversiones Mapa de competitividad comercial Mapa de la contratación pública Mapa del potencial de exportación Mapa de sostenibilidad Información de mercado El ITC proporciona información de mercado a las MIPYME y a los responsables políticos a través de recursos como el blog Market Insider y el Global Trade Helpdesk. El Global Trade Helpdesk es una iniciativa en coordinación con la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo y la OMC, que enlaza con muchas herramientas de análisis de mercado del ITC y otros importantes recursos comerciales. Biblioteca Una biblioteca en línea de fuentes de información comercial está a disposición del público. El catálogo en línea de la biblioteca está a disposición de todos los usuarios, al igual que una lista completa de las publicaciones del CCI. Entre los informes de interés para los responsables de la formulación de políticas se incluyen la publicación insignia del CCI Perspectivas de competitividad de las PYME (SMECO) y guías para los responsables de la formulación de políticas como Getting Down to Business: Aprovechar al máximo el Acuerdo sobre Facilitación del Comercio de la OMC.

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      Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos

      La Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) es un organismo con sede en París que cuenta con 38 países miembros. Entre otras áreas de responsabilidad, su secretaría ofrece una amplia gama de investigaciones políticas y datos para apoyar el desarrollo económico y la inclusión de empresarios y PYME. Se puede acceder a su página web sobre PYME, espíritu empresarial y turismo aquí. Otros recursos son: Espíritu empresarial El espíritu empresarial es un importante foco de atención de la OCDE. La OCDE proporciona análisis e información sobre políticas de iniciativa empresarial, incluidos estudios de casos y revisiones. En este contexto, la OCDE examina principalmente los obstáculos y los factores que favorecen el espíritu empresarial para la transición industrial y el crecimiento. Financiación de las PYME La OCDE ha incluido la financiación de las PYME entre sus investigaciones y recomendaciones políticas. Mediante la documentación de las tendencias de financiación de las PYME y el intercambio de conocimientos y aprendizaje en esta materia, la OCDE pretende reforzar el acceso de las PYME al crédito. La agenda del G20 y las PYME La agenda del G20 y las PYME, en particular en lo que respecta a la financiación de las PYME, ha sido impulsada por la OCDE como una pieza importante de la política internacional para las PYME. La OCDE ha contribuido a esta labor a través de los Principios de alto nivel del G20 y la OCDE sobre la financiación de las PYME y el informe Enfoques eficaces del G20 y la OCDE para la aplicación de los Principios de alto nivel del G20 y la OCDE sobre la financiación de las PYME. Otros ejemplos son su contribución a plataformas como la Asociación Mundial para la Inclusión Financiera (GPFI). La iLibrary de la OCDE La iLibrary de la OCDE es un importante recurso que proporciona acceso a la investigación de la OCDE, incluida la relativa a las PYME. Digitalización de las PYME Digitalización de las PYME, o la "Iniciativa Global Digital para las PYME" de la OCDE, es una plataforma para que los gobiernos de la OCDE, las grandes empresas, los expertos de la industria y las propias PYME trabajen juntos en la transformación digital de las PYME. La iniciativa se centra en proporcionar investigación, intercambio de experiencias de las PYME y un espacio para el diálogo político sobre las PYME y la digitalización. Análisis del rendimiento de las PYME La OCDE puede llevar a cabo un análisis del rendimiento de las PYME junto con los gobiernos nacionales y locales para analizar el potencial de las PYME en una economía específica y examinar cómo liberar esta capacidad. Reunión Ministerial de PYME La Reunión Ministerial PYME 2018 fue una conferencia a nivel ministerial de 55 países miembros y no miembros de la OCDE, así como de organizaciones y asociaciones internacionales. Celebrada en México, la conferencia se llevó a cabo para discutir formas de mejorar la productividad de las PYME y el crecimiento inclusivo. Al final de la sesión, los 55 países adoptaron la Declaración sobre el Fortalecimiento de las PYME y el Emprendimiento para la Productividad y el Crecimiento Inclusivo (también disponible en francés).

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      Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo

      La Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo es un organismo de la ONU con sede en Ginebra (Suiza), centrado específicamente en los países en desarrollo. Apoya el desarrollo empresarial mediante formación y proyectos, entre otras funciones. Aquí encontrará una lista completa de sus recursos para el desarrollo empresarial, incluido el marco de política empresarial de la UNCTAD y una Iniciativa mundial para el resurgimiento del sector de las MIPYME después de la crisis de 1948. La UNCTAD también ofrece los siguientes recursos relacionados con las MIPYME: Información sobre comercio electrónico y una evaluación de la preparación para el comercio electrónico de las economías nacionales. Formación comercial y desarrollo de capacidades centradas en las medidas no arancelarias y otras medidas comerciales que pueden afectar a las MIPYME. Información sobre transporte, logística y facilitación del comercio, incluido SIDUNEA. SIDUNEA (Sistema Automatizado de Datos Aduaneros) es un sistema informatizado de gestión aduanera de la UNCTAD que abarca la mayoría de los procedimientos de comercio exterior, incluidos los manifiestos, las declaraciones de aduana, los procedimientos contables y los procedimientos de tránsito y suspenso. SIDUNEA puede acelerar y facilitar el proceso de despacho de aduanas, beneficiando a todas las empresas, especialmente a las mipymes.

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      Organización Mundial de la Propiedad Intelectual

      La OMPI es la agencia de las Naciones Unidas dedicada a la propiedad intelectual (PI), con sede en Ginebra. Alberga varios tratados de PI y también varios recursos para responsables políticos, empresas y otras partes interesadas. A continuación se ofrece un resumen de estos recursos. Diagnóstico de PI de la OMPI La OMPI ofrece una herramienta en línea de autoevaluación de la PI, que se puso en marcha en noviembre de 2021. La herramienta incluye un cuestionario sobre varias cuestiones relacionadas con la PI que pueden afectar a su empresa y genera un informe una vez completado el cuestionario. La herramienta es accesible en línea en el sitio web de la OMPI. Serie de guías de la OMPI sobre PI para empresas La OMPI también dispone de varias guías en las que se explica cómo pueden abordar las empresas las cuestiones relacionadas con la propiedad intelectual. La serie completa de guías puede consultarse en el sitio web de la OMPI, y a continuación figura una breve lista de las más importantes para las MIPYME. Enterprising Ideas, A Guide to Intellectual Property for Startups (2021) (en inglés) Looking Good - An Introduction to Industrial Designs for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (actualizada y revisada en 2019). En buena compañía: Cómo gestionar las cuestiones de propiedad intelectual en las franquicias (revisado en 2019) Inventar el futuro: Una introducción a las patentes para pequeñas y medianas empresas (actualizado y revisado en 2018) Making a Mark: An Introduction to Trademarks for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (actualizado y revisado en 2017) Expresión creativa: Una introducción a los derechos de autor y derechos afines para pequeñas y medianas empresas (2006 - actualmente en revisión) También hay varias otras guías en desarrollo, que deberían estar disponibles en el sitio web de la OMPI a su debido tiempo. Cartografía de las instituciones intermediarias de las PYME y sus servicios La OMPI ha puesto en marcha una breve encuesta para identificar las instituciones intermediarias que prestan servicios de PI. Los resultados de esta encuesta se incluirán en una base de datos de acceso público. Se puede acceder a la encuesta en el sitio web de la OMPI. Soluciones empresariales de la Oficina de Propiedad Intelectual La OMPI también presta apoyo a las oficinas nacionales de PI en el desarrollo de sus propios servicios para los usuarios nacionales. Para más información sobre el apoyo disponible, consulte el sitio web de la OMPI.

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      Organización Mundial del Comercio

      Reconociendo la importancia de la inclusión comercial de las MIPYME, la OMC ofrece una serie de recursos diferentes para apoyar a los responsables de las políticas comerciales y a los comerciantes. Ayuda para el Comercio Ayuda para el Comercio - La iniciativa Ayuda para el Comercio (A4T) liderada por la OMC se ha referido a las necesidades y problemas de las MIPYME en varias ocasiones. El Programa de Trabajo 2018-19 para la Ayuda para el Comercio examinó cómo el comercio podría contribuir a la diversificación económica, el empoderamiento y la reducción de la pobreza a través de la participación efectiva de las MIPYME, las mujeres y los jóvenes. El programa también revisó cómo la A4T aborda las limitaciones de infraestructura relacionadas con el comercio, incluso para las MIPYME. El programa de trabajo para 2020-22 subrayó la importancia de los sectores dominados por las MIPYME para impulsar el desarrollo económico. El Marco Integrado Mejorado El Marco Integrado Mejorado (MIM) ayuda a los gobiernos de los países menos desarrollados a abordar las limitaciones relacionadas con la competitividad, el potencial de crecimiento y las deficiencias de la cadena de suministro, incluidas las limitaciones específicas a las que se enfrentan las MIPYME. El MIM es una asociación que reúne a varios países, donantes y organismos asociados. ePing ePing, un proyecto conjunto del Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales de las Naciones Unidas (UNDESA), la OMC y el Centro de Comercio Internacional (ITC), comparte información sobre los requisitos de los productos. A través del sitio, los usuarios pueden buscar medidas sanitarias y fitosanitarias (MSF) y obstáculos técnicos al comercio (OTC), recibir alertas y colaborar. Contratación pública El Comité de Contratación Pública de la OMC puso en marcha en 2012 un programa de trabajo sobre las MIPYME para facilitar su participación en proyectos de contratación pública y maximizar su potencial de crecimiento. Aumentar la participación de las MIPYME en la contratación pública también garantiza un proceso de licitación más competitivo, logrando así una mejor relación calidad-precio en las compras gubernamentales. Grupo de trabajo informal sobre las MIPYME El Grupo de Trabajo Informal sobre las MIPYME se puso en marcha en la Undécima Conferencia Ministerial de la OMC en diciembre de 2017. El Grupo tiene como objetivo identificar y abordar los obstáculos a la participación de las MIPYME en el comercio internacional. Actualmente está formado por 91 miembros de la OMC y está abierto a todos los miembros. Los documentos publicados por el Grupo están disponibles en WTO Docs Online y se pueden buscar como "INF/MSME/*". Propiedad intelectual El Consejo de los Aspectos de los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual relacionados con el Comercio (ADPIC) se dedica a la aplicación de las normas de la OMC en materia de propiedad intelectual. En este contexto, los Miembros de la OMC también intercambian información sobre sus políticas destinadas a apoyar la creatividad, la inventiva y las inversiones en investigación y tecnología de las MIPYME. Los Miembros han reconocido la especial importancia de los derechos de propiedad intelectual para las pequeñas empresas, cuyo capital intelectual es a menudo su principal activo. Las políticas relacionadas con las MIPYME presentadas en ese contexto incluyen planes de ayuda financiera, esfuerzos para agilizar los procedimientos de solicitud y una mayor transparencia de las normas de propiedad intelectual. El Servicio de Elaboración de Normas y Fomento del Comercio El Fondo para la Aplicación de Normas y el Fomento del Comercio (FANFC) es una asociación que ayuda a los gobiernos a mejorar la aplicación de medidas sanitarias y fitosanitarias, entre otras responsabilidades. Estos esfuerzos contribuyen a aumentar las oportunidades comerciales de las mipymes. Comercio y género Para mejorar el carácter inclusivo del comercio, algunos miembros de la OMC también han estado estudiando cómo apoyar la capacitación económica de las mujeres a través del comercio. Esta labor está estrechamente vinculada a la relativa al comercio y las MIPYME, y puede obtenerse más información en el siguiente enlace. El servicio mundial de ayuda al comercio Por último, junto con el CCI y la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD), la OMC es uno de los organismos responsables del Global Trade Helpdesk.

¿Qué fuentes de datos sobre mipymes pueden consultarse a efectos de análisis?

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      ¿Qué fuentes de datos sobre mipymes pueden consultarse a efectos de análisis?

      What MSME Data Sources are Available for Analytical Purposes?   The Asian Development Bank (ADB) The ADB launched the Asia Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Monitor (ASM) in 2014 and the second edition in 2015. The monitor covers 20 developing member countries from five ADB subregions. The 2020 edition upgrades the ASM by extending analytical coverage to both financial and non-financial topics critical to MSME development. Data from the most recent report, including a time-series of exports for selected countries, are available here.   The International Monetary Fund (IMF) The IMF financial access survey is the key source of global supply-side data on financial inclusion, encompassing data on access to and usage of financial services by firms and households that can be compared across countries over time. Data are available from 2004 and relevant series are marked “…o/w SME.”   The International Trade Centre (ITC) The ITC’s trade map provides information on imports and exports at the firm level that can be disaggregated by a range of features, including: Company name; city and country; list of traded products; number of employees; annual turnover; contact persons; website address; and phone numbers. Accessibility on company data features can vary according to the subscriptions options. For more information, users can visit https://www.trademap.org/ and/or contact by email at [email protected]. In addition, ITC’s SME Competitiveness Survey (SMECS) collects business data in partnership with countries to assist policymakers in developing strategic approaches, policies and interventions on small business competitiveness.   National Trade Data National trade data with firm-size characteristics includes the following examples: Eurostat The main objective of the trade in goods statistics by enterprise characteristics (TEC) is to bridge two major statistical domains which have traditionally been compiled and used separately. These are business statistics and international trade in goods statistics (ITGS). With annual data from 2012 for European countries, the section on trade by partner country and enterprise size class has information on European goods exports and imports by firm size.  Experimental dataset on services trade with enterprise characteristics (STEC). Data are for 2014.  UK Office for National Statistics UK trade in goods by business characteristics. These data detail international trade in goods by industry, age, and size of business with figures from 2013. UK trade in services by business characteristics (size and ownership), industry, and region, on a balance of payments basis using a new experimental dataset. Data are for 2016-18. Statistics Canada Trade in goods by exporter characteristics, by enterprise employment size, and region type (statcan.gc.ca), annual data from 2005. Limited to exports involving the United States and non-United States with information on value and number of exporters. Additional tables are also available for industry, export concentration, country of destination, and export size. Trade in goods by importer characteristics, by enterprise employment size and number of partner countries (statcan.gc.ca), annual data from 2010. Limited to a number of partner countries. Additional tables are also available for concentration of imports, country of origin, country of export, and import size. International transactions in services, commercial services by enterprise characteristics, enterprise employment size and industry, annual (statcan.gc.ca), annual data from 2010.   The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)  The Trade by Enterprise Characteristics (TEC) database contains international annual trade in goods data, broken down by different categories of enterprises. The data provide a solid basis for policy analyses that explore which types of firms are responsible for international trade in goods. It answers questions such as who are the firms that are engaged in foreign markets and what are their characteristics. Both the export and import values and the number of exporting and importing enterprises are available for 26 OECD and 6 non-OECD countries. This includes the 27 EU member states plus Canada, Norway, Israel, Turkey, and the United States. Structural Business Statistics (SDBS) provides a wealth of information at a very detailed sectoral level including turnover, value-added, production, operating surplus, employment, labour costs, and investment, to name a few. The breakdown by industrial sector, including services, is supplemented by a further breakdown into size classes.   The SME Finance Forum  The SME Finance Forum links to a number of useful SME finance data sources, primarily from the International Finance Corporation, which is part of the World Bank Group. These are summarized below.  IFC Enterprise Finance Gap Database – This resource primarily uses data from World Bank Enterprise Surveys to estimate the number of MSMEs in the world and the degree of access to credit and use of deposit accounts for formal and informal MSMEs. The database currently covers 177 countries. IFC Financing to Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises – The IFC Reach Data is based on portfolio reporting from 2004 to the present, drawing from the IFC’s 268 client financial institutions from 84 countries, and detailing the number and quality of loans made to MSMEs. MSME Economic Indicators – The MSME Economic Indicators Database 2019 records the number of formally registered MSMEs across 176 economies. The 2019 update includes the latest economy MSME definitions, number of enterprises, employment figures, and historical data. In addition, the 2019 update kick-starts the collection of information regarding MSME contribution to the economies and includes information on multiple MSME definitions and data sources within an economy. Data are also disaggregated by firm size. Women – SME Finance Categorized Indicators (WSCI) – The WSCI identifies and categorizes “Women Business and the Law 2018” indicators of relevance to SME finance. It is a first step to aggregate and collate gender data systematically to understand the situation, monitor trends, and assess progress. The Women Business and the Law dataset is the most comprehensive Gender Data set covering 189 economies. Systematic trend analysis can facilitate measurement of progress and gaps over time.   World Bank Enterprise Surveys (WBES) Enterprise Surveys Data offers an expansive array of economic data on 171,000 firms in 149 countries, including direct exports and imports of goods and services in certain sectors. The data is presented in a variety of ways useful to researchers, policymakers, journalists, and others. Note that data users should exercise caution when comparing raw data and point estimates between surveys that did and did not adhere to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology. More information on WBES trade data is available here. Researchers can also access the raw survey data by following the instructions here.  

¿Qué otras organizaciones existen para apoyar el comercio de las mipymes?

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      ¿Qué otras organizaciones e iniciativas existen para apoyar el comercio de las mipymes?